Two initially parallel ropes twisted together by length of wood inserted in a loop between them; used to apply tension.

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A piece of ice smaller than a BERGY BIT or FLOEBERG, often transparent but appearing green or almost black in color. It extends less than 1 meter above the sea surface and its length is less than 20 feet (6 meters). A growler is large enough to be a hazard to shipping but small enough that it may escape visual or radar detection.


A flow situation in which fluid moves in parallel lamina or layers.


The difference between the velocities along the parallel faces of a fluid element divided by the distance between the faces.


A system of filtration in which only a portion of the total flow of a circulating fluid system passes through a filter at any instant or in which a filter having its own circulating pump operates in parallel to the main flow.


Measures the radiation absorbed by chemically unbound atoms by analyzing the transmitted energy relative to the incident energy at each frequency. The procedure consists of diluting the fluid sample with methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) and directly aspirating the solution. The actual process of atomization involves reducing the solution to a fine spray, dissolving it, and finally vaporizing it with a flame. The vaporization of the metal particles depends upon their time in the flame, the flame temperature, and the composition of the flame gas. The spectrum occurs because atoms in the vapor state can absorb radiation at certain well-defined characteristic wave lengths. The wave length bands absorbed are very narrow and differ for each element. In addition, the absorption of radiant energy by electronic transitions from ground to excited state is essentially and absolute measure of the number of atoms in the flame and is, therefore, the concentration of the element in a sample.


A unit of wave length, equal in length to one ten billionth.


A line parallel to a grid equator, connecting all points of equal grid latitude


Parallel to the plane of the horizon; perpendicular to the direction of gravity


Type of compressor designed to compress gas, with piston motion parallel to crankshaft.


Type of compressor designed to compress gas, with piston motion parallel to crankshaft.

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