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U.S. Customs' master computer system, 'Automated Commercial Systems.' Now being replaced by the Automated Commercial Environment system.

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Originally a term for English sea rovers that preyed on Spanish merchantmen in the West Indies. Name thought to be derived from their dried blood coloured red pantaloons boufe canires or meat eaters- it is now commonly used to describe any pirate.


Historically a fine lined French twin masted square rigged vessel or a British flush single gun deck warship. Now a fast naval escort vessel.


Traditionally a beamy open fishing boat of Australian design, now favoured by enthusiasts as a recreational sailing dinghy.


1) Historically a 28 to 60 gun three masted warship, smaller than a Ship of the Line, designed for cruising. 2) Now used more loosely it is the general purpose warship of modern navies.


Australian Uniform Shipping laws code, now being updated by N.S.C.V.


Australian Uniform Shipping laws code, now being updated by N.S.C.V.


U.S. Customs' master computer system, 'Automated Commercial Systems.' Now being replaced by the Automated Commercial Environment system.


When chemical carriers load high value and very pure products, they will commence loading until about one foot of cargo is in the bottom of the tank, then stop. They will take a sample this cargo, known as the foot sample up the facility's lab for analysis to see if during the loading of this one foot of cargo there was any contamination. If not, they will resume loading the tank until completion. If contamination is present in the foot sample they will try to determine the source, while they pump the now off spec cargo to the shore, and start over again, It is hoped that the amount loaded during the foot of cargo is enough to clean the contamination from the tank and piping. This is done to prevent the entire tank being loaded and then contaminated thereby requiring the full cargo to be reprocessed.


An alternative tank vessel design to the double hull which is now required in the U.S.A. This design which is favored in some quarters uses a mid-deck to create a vacuum thereby greatly reducing the outflow of oil should the hull be holed.


A freight fixing system for tankers. In the tanker market, the 'freight fixing system' differs a lot. The use of an 'International Scale' now called the ''New World-wide Tanker Nominal Freight Scale' or simply the '(new) Worldscale' (NWS), is the main characteristic of the tankers' chartering. Normally the Worldscale is being used for tanker cargoes over 10,000 tons. By using such an international scale (the new Worldscale), the parties can compare and evaluate the freight rates for different voyages and different market levels in an easier way. The Worldscale is a table containing freight rates for several tanker trades, taking into account all 'cost related' items involved in each one of them. Such items are: The distances between practically all conceivable tankers trades which are comparatively few and which distances for owners' information are printed in the NWS table. The port costs (disbursement accounts D/A etc.). The port time (four days). Bunker costs. Other costs. And an additional fictional cost element of USDollars 12,000 per day. The basis of the Worldscale is a standard tanker of 75,000 tons dwt , on which round voyage calculations are made taking into account the above mentioned 'cost' items. In this way the freight per metric ton required by the standard ship in each trade has been calculated. The result is found in the Worldscale tables given as a certain amount of dollars (freight) per ton for each trade. These results (values) are called WS 100 or WS Flat. It is obvious that the daily cost of USDollars 12,000 is an imaginary amount, used only as a basis for calculations. Therefore WS 100 is not the actual figure which would cover the daily and voyage costs of the standard ship but an indicator used as a convenient basis level. The Worldscale tables are being updated / revised yearly, in an effort to keep the basis for the calculations in line with actual conditions and actual costs such as port costs, bunker prices etc. Nevertheless the 'fixed hire element' of USDollars 12,000 is maintained. Usually, the tanker owners / managers, produce a series of voyage calculations for the most frequent trades applying to the type and size of their own ships according to the WS. In this way they have available a number of different WS rates which they can compare at a glance with the offered alternative employments. A fixture concluded at WS 80, actually means that the owners will be paid a freight equal to 80% of the freight which appears on the Worldscale table for the specific trade. A direct comparison between a fixture concluded, for instance, at WS 80 and another fixture in an other trade which was concluded at a higher or lower rate, is not correct, since the various cost elements (bunkers, port costs, daily costs) have a different impact on different voyages.

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