The charterer has the use of the ship for a specific trip or a period of time during which he may employ her for his own account. He may direct her within the trading limits agreed in the charter-party and, in normal circumstances, the Master must obey these orders. While the time charterer has the commercial control, the owner retains responsibility for the vessel and the Master and crew remain in his employment. The hire, usually calculated per day or per deadweight metric or long ton, is paid in advance at regular, agreed intervals, normally semi-monthly or monthly. Normally, the charterer pays for the fuel on board at the time he accepts delivery and for fuel supplied while the vessel is on hire. When he hands the vessel back to the owner, the owner pays for what remains on board. The prices applicable on delivery and redelivery are the agreed bunker prices in the charter. The owner pays for the running costs of the vessel. If the ship breaks down or, as a result of the shipowner's fault, the charterer does not have the use of the vessel, the vessel goes 'off-hire' for that period subject to any terms in the charter-party. Time charterers may be owners who want to temporarily augment their own fleet; charterers who have a variety of commitments to meet; charterers who believe long-term chartering will hedge the market; operators who see a profit by taking voyage contracts from charterers and time chartering vessels themselves to cover those contracts. Where a time charterer issues and signs his own bill of lading, he may be held to be a 'carrier' for the purposes of the Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1971.


Related Terms

SHALLOW WATER EFFECT

The effect that due to the depth of water, the speed of the vessel and shape of the vessel's hull causes the vessel to sink deeper in the water especially in shallow water and at high speed. The vessel becomes sluggish in responding to the rudder.

PNEUMATIC TEST

Pressure testing of a process vessel by the use of air pressure.

PIEZOMETER

1. An instrument for measuring fluid pressure, such as a gage attached to a pipe containing a gas or liquid. 2. An instrument for measuring the compressibility of materials, such as a vessel that determines the change in volume of a substance in response to hydrostatic pressure.

PERFORATED-PLATE EXTRACTOR

A liquid-liquid extraction vessel in which perforated plates are used to bring about contact between the two or more liquid phases.

PACHUCA TANK

Air-agitated, solidliquid mixing vessel in which the air is injected into the bottom of a center draft tube; air and solids rise through the tube, with solids exiting the top of the tube and falling through the bulk of the liquid.

NORMAL OPERATION

[MECHENG] The operation of a boiler or pressure vessel at or below the conditions of coincident pressure and temperature for which the vessel has been designed.

MOVING-BED CATALYTIC CRACKING

[CHEMENG] Petroleum refining process for cracking (breaking) of long hydrocarbon molecules by use of heat, pressure, and a granular cracking catalyst that is continuously cycled between the reactor vessel and the catalyst regenerator.

MOVINGBED

[CHEMENG] Granulatedsolidsina process vessel that are circulated (moved) either mechanically or by gravity flow; used in catalytic and absorption processes.

LONGITUDINAL BAFFLE

Baffle sheets or plates within a process vessel (such as a heat exchanger) that are parallel to the long dimension of the vessel; used to direct fluid flow in the desired flow pattern.

LAUNCHING CRADLE

A framework made of wood to support a vessel during launching from sliding ways.

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