During a time study, an elapsed time for any element which is excessively longer or shorter than the median of the elapsed times. Also known as abnormal reading.

Related Terms


  1. An isogram indicating the variation of an element with respect to two variables, one of which is usually the time of year. The other may be time of day, altitude, or some other variable. 2. A line on a map depicting points of constant value of a variable. Examples are contours, isobars, and isogons.


A time-study technique in which the time value of an element of extremely short duration is determined by various calculations involving cycle values that first include and then exclude the element under consideration.


An element of a work cycle whose time span is long enough to be observed and measured with a stopwatch.


A freight fixing system for tankers. In the tanker market, the 'freight fixing system' differs a lot. The use of an 'International Scale' now called the ''New World-wide Tanker Nominal Freight Scale' or simply the '(new) Worldscale' (NWS), is the main characteristic of the tankers' chartering. Normally the Worldscale is being used for tanker cargoes over 10,000 tons. By using such an international scale (the new Worldscale), the parties can compare and evaluate the freight rates for different voyages and different market levels in an easier way. The Worldscale is a table containing freight rates for several tanker trades, taking into account all 'cost related' items involved in each one of them. Such items are: The distances between practically all conceivable tankers trades which are comparatively few and which distances for owners' information are printed in the NWS table. The port costs (disbursement accounts D/A etc.). The port time (four days). Bunker costs. Other costs. And an additional fictional cost element of USDollars 12,000 per day. The basis of the Worldscale is a standard tanker of 75,000 tons dwt , on which round voyage calculations are made taking into account the above mentioned 'cost' items. In this way the freight per metric ton required by the standard ship in each trade has been calculated. The result is found in the Worldscale tables given as a certain amount of dollars (freight) per ton for each trade. These results (values) are called WS 100 or WS Flat. It is obvious that the daily cost of USDollars 12,000 is an imaginary amount, used only as a basis for calculations. Therefore WS 100 is not the actual figure which would cover the daily and voyage costs of the standard ship but an indicator used as a convenient basis level. The Worldscale tables are being updated / revised yearly, in an effort to keep the basis for the calculations in line with actual conditions and actual costs such as port costs, bunker prices etc. Nevertheless the 'fixed hire element' of USDollars 12,000 is maintained. Usually, the tanker owners / managers, produce a series of voyage calculations for the most frequent trades applying to the type and size of their own ships according to the WS. In this way they have available a number of different WS rates which they can compare at a glance with the offered alternative employments. A fixture concluded at WS 80, actually means that the owners will be paid a freight equal to 80% of the freight which appears on the Worldscale table for the specific trade. A direct comparison between a fixture concluded, for instance, at WS 80 and another fixture in an other trade which was concluded at a higher or lower rate, is not correct, since the various cost elements (bunkers, port costs, daily costs) have a different impact on different voyages.


In a time study, the end of an element in a work cycle and the point at which a reading is made. Also known as end point; reading point.


A time-study method that allows direct reading of the time for each element of an operation by the use of two stopwatches which operate alternately.


The selected or average element time adjusted to obtain the element time used by an average qualified operator. Also known as base time; leveled element time.


Under a specified set of conditions, an element for which the standard time allowance should always be the same.


In plant or process operations, the actual time that a unit is operating and producing product.


A satellite navigation system developed by the Department of Defense. The system is provides highly accurate position and velocity information in three dimen- sions and precise time and time interval on a global basis continuously, to an unlimited number of users. It is unaffected by weather and provides a worldwide common grid reference system. The objective of the program is to provide very precise position information for a wide spectrum of military missions. In addition, current policy calls for civil availability with a slight degradation in system accuracy required to protect U.S. national security interests.

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