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Flowing liquid in which gas is dispersed as fine bubbles throughout the liquid.

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In turbulent flow vortices, eddies and wakes make the flow unpredictable. Turbulent flow happens in general at high flow rates and with larger pipes.

Whether flow is streamline or turbulent depends upon certain factors which are summed up by Reynold's number.
Reynolds number = velocity of fluid flow x pipe diameter / kinematic viscosity
If the number is less than 2000 the flow is streamline.
If the number is more than 2500 the flow is turbulent.
(Kinematic viscosity is the ratio of absolute viscosity to relative density)



The lowest temperature at which a liquid gives off sufficient vapor to form a flammable mixture with air near the surface of the liquid. The flashpoint temperature is determined by laboratory testing in a prescribed apparatus.

Establishes the danger point when transferring, pumping, and firing procedures are concerned.


A float which rises and falls with liquid level, actuating a balancing plug valve.


A pipe leading to the bottom of an oil or water tank, for guiding a sounding tape or jointed rod when measuring the depth of liquid in the tank.
Sounding pipes in the engine room are normally fitted with deadweight cocks and screw caps. Caps and cocks should be closed at all times, except when sounding tanks.


A distillation tower along the internal height of which is a series of transverse plates (bubble-cap or sieve) to force intimate contact between downward flowing liquid and upward flowing vapor.


A device for the measurement of viscosity by the timed fall of a piston through the liquid being tested.


A petroleum-refinery still in which heat is applied to the oil while it is being pumped through a coil or pipe arranged in a firebox, the oil then running to a fractionator with continuous removal of overhead vapor and liquid bottoms.


Abbreviated pt. 1. A unit of volume, used in the United States for measurement of liquid substances, equal to 1/8 U.S. gallon, or 231/8 cubic inches, or 4.73176473 10 4 cubic meter. Also known as liquid pint (liq pt). 2. A unit of volume used in the United States for measurement of solid substances, equal to 1/64 U.S. bushel, or 107,521/3200 cubic inches, or approximately 5.50610 10 4 cubic meter. Also known as dry pint (dry pt). 3. A unit of volume, used in the United Kingdom for measurement of liquid and solid substances, although usually the former, equal to 1/8 imperial gallon, or 5.6826125 10 4 cubic meter. Also known as imperial pint.


A membrane separation process in which particles greater than about 20 nanometers in diameter are screened out of a liquid in which they are suspended.


A method of determining the heat of fusion of a substance whose specific heat is known, in which a known amount of the solid is combined with a known amount of the liquid in a calorimeter, and the decrease in the liquid temperature during melting of the solid is measured.

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