A raised area on the surface of a metallic or plastic object caused by the pressure of gases developed while the surface was in a partly molten state, or by diffusion of high-pressure gases from an inner surface.

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The force exerted per unit area on a surface created by the collision of gas molecules with the surface.


For a fluid confined in a vessel, the rate of flow of heat out of the fluid, per unit area of vessel wall divided by the difference between the temperature in the interior of the fluid and the temperature at the surface of the wall. Also known as convection coefficient.


An air-duct cowl projecting from the outer surface of an aircraft or automobile, which is designed to utilize the dynamic pressure of the airstream to maintain a flow of air.


The increment in area of a solid surface per unit of area for a rise in temperature of 1 at constant pressure. Also known as superficial expansivity.


A large piece of floating ice showing about 5 meters above the sea surface, which has broken away from an ice shelf, having a thickness of 30 to 50 meters and an area of from a few thousand square meters to l50 square nautical miles or more; usually characterized by a regularly undulating surface which gives it a ribbed appearance from the air.


The submerged surface area of a hull.


Generally, the interface or transition zone between two air masses of different density. Since the temperature distribution is the most important regulator of atmospheric density, a front almost invariably separates air masses of different temperature. Along with the basic density criterion and the common temperature criterion, many other features may distinguish a front, such as a pressure trough, a change in wind direction, a moisture discontinuity, and certain characteristic cloud and precipitation forms. The term front is used ambiguously for: frontal zone, the three-dimensional zone or layer of large horizontal density gradient, bounded by frontal surfaces across which the horizontal density gradient is discontinuous (frontal surface usually refers specifically to the warmer side of the frontal zone); and surface front, the line of intersection of a frontal surface or frontal zone with the earth's surface or less frequently, with a specified constant-pressure surface.


A system of lubrication in which the lubricant is supplied to the bearing surface under pressure.


A warm wind in Spain, either a foehn or a hot southerly wind in advance of a low pressure area moving from the Sahara Desert.


Formation of an air or vapor pocket (or bubble) due to lowering of pressure in a liquid, often as a result of a solid body, such as a propeller or piston, moving through the liquid; also, the pitting or wearing away of a solid surface as a result of the collapse of a vapor bubble. Cavitation can occur in a hydraulic system as a result of low fluid levels that draw air into the system, producing tiny bubbles that expand explosively at the pump outlet, causing metal erosion and eventual pump destruction.

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