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A vertical stack or chimney into which the contents of a chemical or petroleum process unit are emptied in case of an operational emergency.

Related Terms


An obsolete liquid-phase thermal cracking process for heavy petroleum fractions; the charge was heated under pressure in a vertical shell still.


  1. The quantity of material required for or produced by one operation. 2. An amount of material subjected to some unit chemical process or physical mixing process to make the final product substantially uniform.


The use of a single chemical or refinery process unit alternately in more than one operation; for example, a catalytic reactor will first produce a chemical product and then will be blocked from the main process stream during catalyst regeneration.


Petroleum refinery process for light hydrocarbon streams in which an electrostatic field is used to assist in separation of chemical treating agents (acid, caustic, doctor) from the hydrocarbon phase.


An area in a refinery or chemical plant encompassing a processing unit or battery of units along with their related utilities and services.


A chemical process used in analyzing feedwater.


(1) chemically speaking, a distinct substance formed by the combination of two or more elements in definite proportions by weight and possessing physical and chemical properties different from those of the combining elements. (2) in petroleum processing, generally connotes fatty oils and similar materials foreign to petroleum added to lubricants to impart special properties.


Process for removal of minor constituents from fluids by stirring in direct contact with powdered or granulated adsorbents, or by passing the fluid through fixed-position adsorbent beds (activated carbon or ion-exchange resin); used to decolorize petroleum lubricating oils and to remove solvent vapors from air.


A gravity scale established by the American Petroleum Institute and in general use in the petroleum industry, the unit being called 'the A.P.I. degree' .


A filter for the clarification of process liquids containing small amounts of solids; turgid liquid flows between thin metal disks, assembled in a vertical stack, to openings in a central shaft supporting the disks, and solids are trapped between the disks.

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