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A petroleum oil to which has been added other chemical substances.



Related Terms

ACID SLUDGE

The residue left after treating petroleum oil with sulfuric acid for the removal of impurities.

SURFACTANT

Surface-active agent that reduces interfacial tension of a liquid. A surfactant used in a petroleum oil may increase the oil's affinity for metals and other materials.

IMMISCIBLE

Incapable of being mixed without separation of phases. Water and petroleum oil are immiscible under most conditions, although they can be made miscible with the addition of an emulsifier.

COMPOUND

(1) chemically speaking, a distinct substance formed by the combination of two or more elements in definite proportions by weight and possessing physical and chemical properties different from those of the combining elements. (2) in petroleum processing, generally connotes fatty oils and similar materials foreign to petroleum added to lubricants to impart special properties.

FIRE-RESISTANT FLUID

Lubricant used especially in high-temperature or hazardous hydraulic applications. Three common types of fire-resistant fluids are: (1) water-petroleum oil emulsions, in which the water prevents burning of the petroleum constituent; (2) water-glycol fluids; and (3) non- aqueous fluids of low volatility, such as phosphate esters, silicones, and halogenated hydrocarbon-type fluids.

LPG

Liquefied Petroleum Gas - this group of products includes propane and butane which can be shipped separately or as a mixture.
The LPG gases are taken out of the raw oil during refining, or from natural gas separation. LPG gases are defined as propane, butane and a mixture of these. Large atmospheric pressure gas carriers carry most of the LPG transported at sea. However, some LPG is transported with intermediate pressure gas carriers. Fully pressurised gas carriers mainly handle coastal trade. LPG can be cooled with water, and most LPG carriers have direct cargo cooling plants that condense the gas against water.
The sea transport of LPG is mainly from The Persian Gulf to Japan and Korea. It is also from the north- west Europe to USA, and from the western Mediterranean to USA and Northwest Europe.
LPG is utilised for energy purposes and in the petro-chemical industry

PARAFFIN PRESS

A filter press used during petroleum refining for the separation of paraffin oil and crystallizable paraffin wax from distillates.

CORROSION INHIBITOR

Additive for protecting lubricated metal surfaces against chemical attack by water or other contaminants. There are several types of corrosion inhibitors. Polar compounds wet the metal surface preferentially, protecting it with a film of oil. Other compounds may absorb water by incorporating it in a water-in-oil emulsion so that only the oil touches the metal surface. Another type of corrosion inhibitor combines chemically with the metal to present a non- reactive surface.

WAX

Substance formulated from paraffin content while being frozen at a low temperature. However, it can be easily turned into liquid distilled oil by means of heating to a temperature greater than the freezing point. Generally, the freezing point is less than 40 degrees Celsius. The WAX ingredient is included in all fuel oil (including HFO, MGO, and MDO). Due to recent technological changes in fuel oil refinement, the amount of WAX contained in all fuel oils, including distilled oil, has increased.

COKING

  1. Destructive distillation of coal to make coke
  2. A process for thermally converting the heavy residual bottoms of crude oil entirely to lower-boiling petroleum products and by-product petroleum coke.

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