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The degree to which a semisolid material such as grease resists deformation. (See ASTM designation D 217.) Sometimes used qualitatively to denote viscosity of liquids.

Related Terms


Ductile metal, plastic, or other semisoft solid material that has been shaped into a continuous form (such as fiber, film, pipe, or wire coating) by forcing the semisolid material through a die opening of appropriate shape.


A lubricant composed of an oil or oils thickened with a soap, soaps or other thickener to a semisolid or solid consistency.


  1. An instrument that measures the penetrating power of a beam of xrays or other penetrating radiation. 2. An instrument used to determine the consistency of a material by measurement of the depth to which a standard needle penetrates into it under standard conditions.


The clogging of filtering medium of a micro screen or a vacuum filter when the holes or spaces in the media become sealed off due to grease or the material being filtered. Also, insertion of blind flanges into a pipeline for isolation purposes.


That property of a lubricating grease which is manifested by a softening in consistency as a result of shearing followed by a hardening in consistency starting immediately after the shearing is stopped.


Any substance having the attributes of both a solid and a liquid. Similar to semiliquid but being more closely related to a solid than a liquid. More generally, any substance in which the force required to produce a deformation depends both on the magnitude and on the rate of the deformation.


A number indicating the nominal viscosity of an industrial fluid lubricant at 40°C (104°F) as defined by ASTM Standard Viscosity System for Industrial Fluid Lubricants D 2422. Essentially identical to ISO Standard 3448.


Theory of the deformation of a prismatic beam having a length at least 10 times its depth and consisting of a material obeying Hooke's law, in response to stresses within the elastic limit.


Apparent viscosity in cP determined by Brookfield viscometer, which measures the torque required to rotate a spindle at constant speed in oil of a given temperature. Basis for ASTM Method D 2983; used for measuring low temperature viscosity of lubricants.


Frictional force overcome in sliding one layer of fluid along another, as in any fluid flow. The shear stress of a petroleum oil or other Newtonian fluid at a given temperature varies directly with shear rate (velocity). The ratio between shear stress and shear rate is constant; this ratio is termed viscosity of a Newtonian fluid, the greater the shear stress as a function of rate of shear. In a non-Newtonian fluid, such as a grease or a polymer-containing oil (e.g. multi-grade oil) - shear stress is not proportional to the rate of shear. A non-Newtonian fluid may be said to have an apparent viscosity, a viscosity that holds only for the shear rate (and temperature) at which the viscosity is determined.

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