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The process whereby large molecules are broken down by the application of heat and pressure to form smaller molecules.



Related Terms

REFRIGERATION SYSTEM

A process using interconnected components that form a closed circuit in which refrigerant is circulated for the purpose of absorbing and then releasing heat for the purpose of cooling.

ABSORPTION CYCLE

In refrigeration, the process whereby a circulating refrigerant, for example, ammonia, is evaporated by heat from an aqueous solution at elevated pressure and subsequently reabsorbed at low pressure, displacing the need for a compressor.

FLEMING CRACKING PROCESS

An obsolete liquid-phase thermal cracking process for heavy petroleum fractions; the charge was heated under pressure in a vertical shell still.

COMPRESSION REFRIGERATION

The cooling of a gaseous refrigerant by first compressing it to liquid form (with resultant heat buildup), cooling the liquid by heat exchange, then releasing pressure to allow the liquid to vaporize (with resultant absorption of latent heat of vaporization and a refrigerative effect).

DRAPER EFFECT

The increase in volume at constant pressure at the start of the reaction of hydrogen and chlorine to form hydrogen chloride; the volume increase is caused by an increase in temperature of the reactants, due to heat released in the reaction.

HEAT CAPACITY

The quantity of heat required to raise a system one degree in temperature in a specified way, usually at constant pressure or constant volume. Also known as thermal capacity.

POLYMERIZATION

The chemical union of two or more molecules of the same compound to form a larger molecule of 1 new compound called a polymer. By this mechanism the reaction can become self-propagating causing liquids to become more viscous and the end result may even be a solid substance. Such chemical reactions usually give off a great deal of heat.

CASTNER PROCESS

A process used industrially to make high-test sodium cyanide by reacting sodium, glowed charcoal, and dry ammonia gas to form sodamide, which is converted to cyanamide immediately; the cyanamide is converted to cyanide with charcoal.

MAXIMUM WORKING AREA

[INDENG] That portion of the working area that is readily accessible to the hands of a worker when in his normal states that the difference between the specific heat of a gas at constant pressure and its specific heat at constant volume is equal to the gas constant divided by the molecular weight of the gas.

PNEUMATIC TEST

Pressure testing of a process vessel by the use of air pressure.

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