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An engine that operates by the energy of combustion of a fuel.

Related Terms

CROWN

The top of the piston in an internal combustion engine above the fire ring, exposed to direct flame impingement.

CROWN

The top of the piston in an internal combustion engine above the fire ring, exposed to direct flame impingement.

CAM

Eccentric shaft used in most internal combustion engines to open and close valves.

DEPOSITS

Oil-insoluble materials that result from oxidation and decomposition of lube oil and contamination from external sources and engine blow-by. These can settle out on machine or engine parts. Examples are sludge, varnish, lacquer and carbon.

ALKALI

Any substance having basic (as opposed to acidic) properties. In a restricted sense it is applied to the hydroxides of ammonium, lithium, potassium and sodium. Alkaline materials in lubricating oils neutralize acids to prevent acidic and corrosive wear in internal combustion engines.

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANT

All material and energy present in and around an operating system, such as dust, air moisture, chemicals, and thermal energy.

ADIABATIC EFFICIENCY

The ratio of actual work output of a heat engine to the ideal output.

API ENGINE SERVICE CATEGORY

Gasoline and diesel engine oil quality levels established jointly by API, SAE, and ASTM, and sometimes called SAE or API/SAE categories; formerly called API Engine Service Classifications.

ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY

Measures the radiation absorbed by chemically unbound atoms by analyzing the transmitted energy relative to the incident energy at each frequency. The procedure consists of diluting the fluid sample with methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) and directly aspirating the solution. The actual process of atomization involves reducing the solution to a fine spray, dissolving it, and finally vaporizing it with a flame. The vaporization of the metal particles depends upon their time in the flame, the flame temperature, and the composition of the flame gas. The spectrum occurs because atoms in the vapor state can absorb radiation at certain well-defined characteristic wave lengths. The wave length bands absorbed are very narrow and differ for each element. In addition, the absorption of radiant energy by electronic transitions from ground to excited state is essentially and absolute measure of the number of atoms in the flame and is, therefore, the concentration of the element in a sample.

BLOW-BY

Passage of unburned fuel and combustion gases past the piston rings of internal combustion engines, resulting in fuel dilution and contamination of the crankcase oil.
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