Compression of materials into a dense, hard substance with the aid of heat.

Related Terms


1. An instrument for measuring fluid pressure, such as a gage attached to a pipe containing a gas or liquid. 2. An instrument for measuring the compressibility of materials, such as a vessel that determines the change in volume of a substance in response to hydrostatic pressure.


The property of a substance that emits electrons when struck by light.


The rule that the heat capacity of 1 mole of a solid substance is approximately equal to the sum over the elements forming the substance of the heat capacity of a gram atom of the element times the number of atoms of the element in a molecule of the substance.


A method of determining the heat of fusion of a substance whose specific heat is known, in which a known amount of the solid is combined with a known amount of the liquid in a calorimeter, and the decrease in the liquid temperature during melting of the solid is measured.


A unit of heat capacity equal to the heat capacity of a substance whose temperature is raised 1 Celsius by 1 joule.


A temperature at which the specific heat of a substance has a sharply peaked maximum, observed in many second-order transitions.


An equation giving the increase in vapor pressure of a substance which accompanies an increase in curvature of its surface; the equation describes the greater rate of evaporation of a small liquid droplet as compared to that of a larger one, and the greater solubility of small solid particles as compared to that of larger particles.


1. The law that when electricity flows through a substance, the rate of evolution of heat in watts equals the resistance of the substance in ohms times the square of the current in amperes. 2. The law that at constant temperature the internal energy of a gas tends to a finite limit, independent of volume, as the pressure tends to zero.


Any transformation of a substance which takes place at a constant temperature.


Magnetization of a substance held at constant temperature; used in combination with adiabatic demagnetization to produce temperatures close to absolute zero.

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