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A carefully insulated distillation apparatus which is capable of very high separating power, and in which the outer vapor-rising annulus of the column is concentric around an inner, bottom-discharging reflux return.

Related Terms

DIELECTRIC STRENGTH

A measure of the ability of an insulating material to withstand electric stress (voltage) without failure. Fluids with high dielectric strength (usually expressed in volts or kilovolts) are good electrical insulators. (ASTM Designation D 877.)

CARBON RESIDUE

Coked material remaining after an oil has been exposed to high temperatures under controlled conditions.

REFRIGERATOR

A device to transfer heat from a low temperature to a high temperature medium.

ADSORPTION

Adhesion of the molecules of gases, liquids, or dissolved substances to a solid surface, resulting in relatively high concentration of the molecules at the place of contact; e.g. the plating out of an anti-wear additive on metal surfaces.

HALF-TIDE BASIN

A lock of very large size and usually of irregular shape, the gates of which are kept open for several hours after high tide so that vessels may enter as long as there is sufficient depth over the sill. Vessels remain in the half-tide basin until the ensuing flood tide before they may pass through the gate to the inner harbor. If entry to the inner harbor is required before this time, water must be admitted to the half-tide basin from some external source.

HIGH WATER INEQUALITY

The difference between the heights of the two high waters during a tidal day

HIGH WATER

The maximum height reached by a rising tide. The height may be due solely to the periodic tidal forces or it may have super- imposed upon it the effects of prevailing meteorological condi- tions. Use of the synonymous term HIGH TIDE is discouraged.

HALF-TIDE LEVEL

A tidal datum midway between mean high water and mean low water. Mean sea level may coincide with half-tide level, but seldom does; the variation is generally about 3 centimeters and rarely exceeds 6 centimeters. Also called MEAN TIDE LEVEL.

HARD IRON

Iron or steel which is not readily magnetized by induction, but which retains a high percentage of the magnetism acquired

HEADLAND

A comparatively high promontory having a steep face. Usually called HEAD when coupled with a specific name. Also called FORELAND.
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