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Metal tubes used in a heat-transfer device, with condenser vapor as the heat source and flowing liquid such as water as the receiver.



Related Terms

BERTHELOT METHOD

A method of measuring the latent heat of vaporization of a liquid that involves determining the temperature rise of a water bath that encloses a tube in which a given amount of vapor is condensed.

CONDENSATION

The change of state from vapor/gas into a liquid, reverse to evaporation. If a vapor becomes supersaturated, condensation takes place and heat is surrendered. For example, in a seawater cooled condenser, a compressor has raised the pressure of the vapor to such an extent that at seawater temperature, it is supersaturated. Condensation takes place, and the latent heat released heats up the water passing through the condenser tubes; the heated seawater passing overboard into the sea, to be replaced continuously by fresh cool water. The resulting condensate will be somewhat warmer than the seawater coolant.

CAVITATION

Formation of an air or vapor pocket (or bubble) due to lowering of pressure in a liquid, often as a result of a solid body, such as a propeller or piston, moving through the liquid; also, the pitting or wearing away of a solid surface as a result of the collapse of a vapor bubble. Cavitation can occur in a hydraulic system as a result of low fluid levels that draw air into the system, producing tiny bubbles that expand explosively at the pump outlet, causing metal erosion and eventual pump destruction.

LATENT HEAT

The heat required to cause a change in state of a substance from solid to liquid (latent heat of fusion) or from liquid to vapor (latent heat of vaporization). These phase changes occur without change of temperature at the melting point and boiling point, respectively.

CAVITATION

Formation of an air or vapor pocket (or bubble) due to lowering of pressure in a liquid, often as a result of a solid body, such as a propeller or piston, moving through the liquid; also, the pitting or wearing away of a solid surface as a result of the collapse of a vapor bubble. Cavitation can occur in a hydraulic system as a result of low fluid levels that draw air into the system, producing tiny bubbles that expand explosively at the pump outlet, causing metal erosion and eventual pump destruction.

CRITICAL PRESSURE AND CRITICAL TEMPERATURE

That point at which the difference between the liquid and vapor states for water completely disappears.

LATENT HEAT

The heat required to changes the state of liquid into a gas or vapor.

COMBUSTION

The rapid reaction of fuel and oxidant (usually oxygen in air) to produce light, heat and noise. Major products of combustion for hydrocarbon fuels (e.g., natural gas, refinery gas, fuel oils) are carbon dioxide and water vapor. Trace products include carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides, which are pollutants.

BOILING TEMPERATURE

The temperature at which a liquid boils. As the boiling temperature rises with an increase in pressure (see saturated vapor pressure), the boiling temperatures are usually given for atmospheric pressure. At this pressure, water boils at +100° C., butane at - 0.5° C., ammonia at - 33° C. and propane at - 43° C.

LATENT HEAT OF VAPORIZATION

Quantity of heat to change the state of a substance from liquid to vapor (or vice versa) without change of temperature.

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