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A flat, reinforced-concrete structural member, relatively sizable in length and width, but shallow in depth; used for floors, roofs, and bridge decks.

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GROWLER

A piece of ice smaller than a BERGY BIT or FLOEBERG, often transparent but appearing green or almost black in color. It extends less than 1 meter above the sea surface and its length is less than 20 feet (6 meters). A growler is large enough to be a hazard to shipping but small enough that it may escape visual or radar detection.

GROUND LOG

A device for determining the course and speed over the ground in shallow water consisting of a lead or weight attached to a line. The lead is thrown overboard and allowed to rest on the bottom. The course over ground is indicated by the direction the line tends and the speed by the amount of line paid out in a unit of time.

ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY

Measures the radiation absorbed by chemically unbound atoms by analyzing the transmitted energy relative to the incident energy at each frequency. The procedure consists of diluting the fluid sample with methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) and directly aspirating the solution. The actual process of atomization involves reducing the solution to a fine spray, dissolving it, and finally vaporizing it with a flame. The vaporization of the metal particles depends upon their time in the flame, the flame temperature, and the composition of the flame gas. The spectrum occurs because atoms in the vapor state can absorb radiation at certain well-defined characteristic wave lengths. The wave length bands absorbed are very narrow and differ for each element. In addition, the absorption of radiant energy by electronic transitions from ground to excited state is essentially and absolute measure of the number of atoms in the flame and is, therefore, the concentration of the element in a sample.

ANGSTROM UNITS

A unit of wave length, equal in length to one ten billionth.

GROUND SWELL

A long, deep swell or undulation of the ocean often caused by a long-continued gale and sometimes a seismic disturbance and felt even at a remote distance. In shallow water the swell rises to a prominent height.

LIZARD

Short length of rope with an eye, used to hold another rope in position.

INTERNATIONAL NAUTICAL MILE

A unit of length equal to 1,852 meters, exactly

LAGOON

1. A shallow sound, pond, or lake generally separated from the open sea. 2. A body of water enclosed by the reefs and islands of an atoll

SHOAL

A shallow water that is a hazard to navigation.

WHEELHOUSE

The compartment on a ship where the wheel is located; also called pilothouse or bridge.
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