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Shock waves in the air caused by an explosion underground or at the surface or by a heavy blow directly to the ground surface during excavation, quarrying, or blasting operations.

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A composite of two fronts, formed when a cold front overtakes a warm front or stationary front. This is common in the late stages of wave-cyclone development, but is not limited to occurrence within a wave-cyclone. There are three basic types of occluded front, determined by the relative coldness of the air behind the original cold front to the air ahead of the warm (or stationary) front. A cold occlusion results when the coldest air is behind the cold front. The cold front undercuts the warm front and, at the earth’s surface, cold air replaces less-cold air. When the coldest air lies ahead of the warm front, a warm occlusion is formed in which case the original cold front is forced aloft at the warm-front surface. At the earth’s surface, cold air is replaced by less-cold air. A third and frequent type, a neutral occlusion, results when there is no appreciable temperature difference between the cold air masses of the cold and warm fronts. In this case frontal characteristics at the earth’s surface consist mainly of a pressure trough, a wind-shift line, and a band of cloudiness and precipitation. Commonly called OCCLUSION. Also called FRONTAL OCCLUSION.


A type of air which develops mostly in winter over the arctic. Arctic air is cold aloft and extends to great heights, but the surface temperatures are often higher than those of POLAR AIR. For 2 or 3 months in summer arctic air masses are shallow and rapidly lose the characteristics as they move southward.


An optical phenomenon in which objects appear distorted, displaced (raised or lowered), magnified, multiplied, or inverted due to varying atmospheric refraction when a layer of air near the earth’s surface differs greatly in density from surrounding air.


To treat a ground surface in order to prevent muddiness.


  1. Cleaning materials by a blast of air that blows small abrasive particles against the surface. 2. The act of detonating an explosive.


A base chart with overprints of various operating areas necessary to control fleet exercise activities. Submarine Transit Lanes, Surface and Sub-surface Operating Areas, Air Space Warning Areas, Controlled Air Spaces, and other restricted areas are portrayed.


  1. A circuit that keeps the output of a radio transmitter or other device essentially constant, even in the presence of large changes in the input amplitude. Abbreviated ALC. 2. In an automotive vehicle, a system in which two air-chamber shock absorbers in the rear are fed compressed air by an electric compressor; pressure in the air chambers is determined automatically by sensors to maintain the vehicle at a predetermined height regardless of load.


A metal-cutting process by which a cylindrical workpiece is ground to a prescribed surface smoothness and diameter by the insertion of the workpiece between a grinding wheel and a canted regulating wheel; the rotation of the regulating wheel controls the rotation and feed rate of the workpiece.


A type of air whose characteristics are developed over high latitudes, especially Within the subpolar highs. Continental polar air has low surface temperature, low moisture content, and especially in its source regions, has great stability in the lower layers. It is shallow in comparison with arctic air. Maritime polar air initially possesses similar properties to those of continental polar air, but in passing over warmer water it becomes unstable with a higher moisture content.


An instrument for measuring the frost point of the atmosphere; air under test is passed continuously across a polished surface whose temperature is adjusted so that a thin deposit of frost is formed which is in equilibrium with the air.

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