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The principle that, when a system of masses is subject only to internal forces that masses of the system exert on one another, the total vector momentum of the system is constant; no violation of this principle has been found. Also known as momentum conservation.

Related Terms


The principle that, when a physical system is subject only to internal forces that bodies in the system exert on each other, the total angular momentum of the system remains constant, provided that both spin and orbital angular momentum are taken into account.


A reference frame which moves with the velocity of the center of mass, so that the center of mass is at rest in this system, and the total momentum of the system is zero. Also known as center of momentum coordinate system.


A plane which is perpendicular to the angular momentum vector of a rotating rigid body not subject to external torque, and which is always tangent to its inertia ellipsoid.


The pressure which overcomes the total resistances in a system. It includes all losses as well as useful work.


An internal combustion engine with a jacket cooling system in which liquid, usually water, is circulated to maintain acceptable operating temperatures of machine parts.


A system of filtration in which the total flow of a circulating fluid system passes through a filter.


Of two systems of forces, having the same vector sum and the same total torque about an arbitrary point.


  1. The ratio of the magnitude of the primary feedback signal in a feedback control system to the magnitude of the actuating signal. 2. Total usable power gain of a carrier terminal or two-wire repeater; maximum usable gain is determined by, and may not exceed, the losses in the closed path.


  1. The method of applying a signal to an electronic circuit or device. 2. The process of introducing electrons or holes into a semiconductor so that their total number exceeds the number present at thermal equilibrium. 3. The introduction of fuel, fuel and air, fuel and oxidizer, water, or other substance into an engine induction system or combustion chamber.


  1. The part of a fuse contributing the major portion of the total weight, and which houses the majority of the functioning parts, and functional decomposition 2. The partitioning of a large-scale control system into a nested set of generic control functions, namely the regulatory or direct control function, the optimizing control function, the adaptive control function, and the self-organizing function.

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