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The relative response of a sonar projector to variations in acoustic intensity, or intensity per unit band, over the surface of a sphere concentric with its center.

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The supplementary unit of solid angle in the International System of Units, which, having its vertex in the center of a sphere, cuts off an area on the surface of the sphere equal to that of a square with sides of length equal to the radius of the sphere.


  1. A curved surface all points of which are equidistant from a fixed point within, called the center. The celestial sphere is an imaginary sphere of infinite radius concentric with the earth, on which all celestial bodies except the earth are imagined to be projected. The celestial sphere as it appears to an observer at the equator, where celestial bodies appear to rise vertically above the horizon, is called a right sphere; at the pole, where bodies appear to move parallel to the horizon, it is called a parallel sphere; between the equator and pole, where bodies appear to rise obliquely to the horizon, it is called an oblique sphere. Half a sphere is called a HEMISPHERE. 2. A body or the space bounded by a spherical surface. For most practical problems of navigation, the earth is considered a sphere, called the terrestrial sphere.


The ratio of the compressive or tensile force applied to a substance per unit surface area to the change in volume of the substance per unit volume. Also known as bulk modulus; compression modulus; hydrostatic modulus; modulus of compression; modulus of volume elasticity.


A composite of two fronts, formed when a cold front overtakes a warm front or stationary front. This is common in the late stages of wave-cyclone development, but is not limited to occurrence within a wave-cyclone. There are three basic types of occluded front, determined by the relative coldness of the air behind the original cold front to the air ahead of the warm (or stationary) front. A cold occlusion results when the coldest air is behind the cold front. The cold front undercuts the warm front and, at the earth’s surface, cold air replaces less-cold air. When the coldest air lies ahead of the warm front, a warm occlusion is formed in which case the original cold front is forced aloft at the warm-front surface. At the earth’s surface, cold air is replaced by less-cold air. A third and frequent type, a neutral occlusion, results when there is no appreciable temperature difference between the cold air masses of the cold and warm fronts. In this case frontal characteristics at the earth’s surface consist mainly of a pressure trough, a wind-shift line, and a band of cloudiness and precipitation. Commonly called OCCLUSION. Also called FRONTAL OCCLUSION.


A device designed to duplicate the frequency response, acoustic impedance, threshold sensitivity, and relative perception of loudness, consisting of a special microphone enclosed in a box with properties similar to those of the human ear.


A term describing orientations of the beams of acoustic or electromagnetic energy employed with doppler navigation systems. The Janus configuration normally used with doppler sonar spee


In a given direction, at a point on the surface of a source or receptor, or at a point on the path of a beam, the quotient of the luminous flux leaving, arriving at, or passing through an element of surface at this point and propagated in directions defined by an elementary cone containing the given directions, by the product of the solid angle of the cone and the area of the orthogonal projection of the element of surface on a plane perpendicular to the given direction. The derived unit of luminance in the International System of Units is the CANDELA PER SQUARE METER.


The work which must be done against electric forces to bring a unit charge from a reference point to the point in question; the reference point is located at an infinite distance, or, for practical purposes, at the surface of the earth or some other large conductor. Also known as electrostatic potential; potential. Abbreviated V.


A conic map projection in which the surface of a sphere or spheroid, such as the earth, is conceived as developed on a tangent cone, which is then spread out to form a plane.


One of a set of magnitudes defining a point in space. If the point is known to be on a given line, only one coordinate is needed; if on a surface, two are required; if in space, three. Cartesian coordinates define a point relative to two intersecting lines, called AXES. If the axes are perpendicular, the coordinates are rectangular; if not perpendicular, they are oblique coordinates. A three- dimensional system of Cartesian coordinates is called space coordinates. Polar coordinates define a point by its distance and direction from a fixed point called the POLE. Direction is given as the angle between a reference radius vector and a radius vector to the point. If three dimensions are involved, two angles are used to locate the radius vector. Space-polar coordinates define a point on the surface of a sphere by (1) its distance from a fixed point at the center, called the POLE (2) the COLATITUDE or angle between the POLAR AXIS (a reference line through the pole) and the RADIUS VECTOR (a straight line connecting the pole and the point)- and (3) the LONGITUDE or angle between a reference plane through the polar axis and a plane through the radius vector and the polar axis. Spherical coordinates define a point on a sphere or spheroid by its angular distances from a primary great circle and from a reference secondary great circle. Geographical or terrestrial coordinates define a point on the surface of the earth. Celestial coordinates define a point on the celestial sphere. The horizon, celestial equator and the ecliptic systems of celestial coordinates are based on the celestial horizon, celestial equator, and the ecliptic, respectively, as the primary great circle.

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