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Process for removal of minor constituents from fluids by stirring in direct contact with powdered or granulated adsorbents, or by passing the fluid through fixed-position adsorbent beds (activated carbon or ion-exchange resin); used to decolorize petroleum lubricating oils and to remove solvent vapors from air.



Related Terms

ABSORPTION TOWER

A vertical, cylindrical pressure vessel in which two fluids contact each other and one fluid absorbs certain constituents from the other. An example is the contactor in a gas sweetening system, which uses amine to absorb hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide from raw natural gas.

FLUID HYDROFORMING

A type of fluid catalytic cracking process used by petroleum refineries to upgrade low-octane-number stocks.

BAUXITE TREATING

A catalytic petroleum process in which a vaporized petroleum fraction is passed through beds of bauxite; conversion of many different sulfur compounds, particularly mercaptans into hydrogen sulfide, takes place.

FIRED PROCESS EQUIPMENT

Heaters, furnaces, reactors, incinerators, vaporizers, steam generators, boilers, and other process equipment for which the heat input is derived from fuel combustion (flames); can be direct-fired (flame in contact with the process stream) or indirect-fired (flame separated from the process fluid by a metallic wall).

FURFURAL EXTRACTION

Process for the refining of lubricating oils and other organic materials by contact with furfural.

LIQUID SULFUR DIOXIDE-BENZENE PROCESS

A petroleum-refinery process using a mixed solvent (SO2 and benzene) to dewax lubricating oils or improve their viscosity indices.

GRAVITY BED

A moving body of solids in which particles (granules, pellets, beads, or briquets) flow downward by gravity through a vessel, while process fluid flows upward; the moving-bed technique is used in blast and shaft furnaces, petroleum catalytic cracking, pellet dryers, and coolers.

COUNTING CIRCUIT. COUNTERCURRENT EXTRACTION

A liquid-liquid extraction process in which the solvent and the process stream in contact with each other flow in opposite directions. Also known as countercurrent separation.

BLEEDING

A process of removing air from fluid lines or pipes.

NAPHTHENIC

A type of petroleum fluid derived from naphthenic crude oil, containing a high proportion of closed-ring methylene groups.

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