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An electromachining process in which the discharge is initiated by allowing the tool and workpiece to come into contact, after which the tool is withdrawn and an arc forms.

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An arc welding process that produces coalescence of metals by heating them with a bare metal electrode. the arc is maintained with a blanket of granulated flux. A consumable filler wire is employed and the arc is maintained between this wire and the parent plate. Around the arc the granulated flux breaks down and provides some gases and a highly protective thermally insulating molten container for the arc. This allows a high concentration of heat, making the process very efficient and suitable for heavy deposits at fast speeds. After welding the molten metal is protected by a layer of fused flux which together with the unfused flux may be recovered before cooling.

The process is basically only intended for down hand applications and where it is used for single pass welding of any size it is essential to use some form of the backing bar because of the comparatively large weld pool obtained. Here the backing bar may be of copper and waste cooled or a flux trough may be provided to form the underbead.


  1. The cumulative process in which an electron or other charged particle accelerated by a strong electric field collides with and ionizes gas molecules, thereby releasing new electrons which in turn have more collisions, so that the discharge is thus self-maintained. Also known as avalanche effect; cascade; cumulative ionization; electron avalanche; Townsend avalanche; Townsend ionization. 2. Cumulative multiplication of carriers in a semiconductor as a result of avalanche breakdown. Also known as avalanche effect.


The opposite to anneal. When hardened tool steels are heated and cooled slowly they become soft. The tempering process is one of heating the metal to cherry red then plunging it into water to cool quickly.


The process of smoothing or squaring lumber or stone for use in a building. 3. The sharpening, repairing, and replacing of parts, notably drilling bits and tool joints, to ready equipment for reuse.


A process of condensation and polymerization in which a mixture of a relatively light mineral oil and a fatty oil is subjected to an electric discharge in an atmosphere of hydrogen; the product is a very viscous oil used for blending with lighter lubricating oils.


Also termed gas metal arc welding. An arc welding process that produces the coalescence of metals by heating them with an arc between continuous filler metal electrode and the work. Shielding is obtained from an external supplied gas source.


A cutting tool with a fixed lower blade and a movable upper blade (shearing arm) that moves in an arc around a fulcrum pin; used mainly for shearing applications that do not require great accuracy.


An arc process of nitrogen fixation in which air passes through an alternating-current arc flattened by a magnetic field to form about 1% nitric oxide.


The process of assimilating many small shipments into one large shipment at a central point so that economies of scale may be achieved; to commence discharge of cargo.


A statistical tool used to detect excessive process variability due to specific assignable causes that can be corrected. It serves to determine whether a process is in a state of statistical control, that is, the extent of variation of the output of the process does not exceed that which is expected based on the natural statistical variability of the process.

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