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A solid-state microwave device that uses a combination of IMPATT diode and npn bipolar transistor technologies; avalanche and drift zones are located between the base and collector regions. Abbreviated CATT.

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A transistor in which electrons tunnel through a thin emitterbase barrier ballistically (that is, without scattering), traverse a very narrow base region, and cross a barrier at the base-collector interface whose height, controlled by the collector voltage, determines the fraction of electrons coming to the collector.


A junction transistor having a p-type base between an n-type emitter and an n-type collector; the emitter should then be negative with respect to the base, and the collector should be positive with respect to the base.


  1. A semiconductive region through which a primary flow of charge carriers leaves the base of a transistor; the electrode or terminal connected to this region is also called the collector. 2. An electrode that collects electrons or ions which have completed their functions within an electron tube; a collector receives electrons after they have done useful work, whereas an anode receives electrons whose useful work is to be done outside the tube. Also known as electron collector. 2. A class of instruments employed to determine the electric potential at a point in the atmosphere, and ultimately the atmospheric electric field; all collectors consist of some device for rapidly bringing a conductor to the same potential as the air immediately surrounding it, plus some form of electrometer for measuring the difference in potential between the equilibrated collector and the earth itself; collectors differ widely in their speed of response to atmospheric potential changes.


A technique for controlling the lifetime of minority carriers in a transistor; gold is diffused into the base and collector regions to reduce storage time in transistor circuits.


A transistor in which a germanium or silicon wafer is etched down in steps so the base and emitter regions appear as physical plateaus above the collector region.


A power semiconductor device that combines low forward voltage drop, gate-controlled turnoff, and high switching speed. It structurally resembles a vertically diffused MOSFET, featuring a double diffusion of a p-type region and an n-type region, but differs from the MOSFET in the use of a p substrate layer (in the case of an nchannel device) for the drain. The effect is to change the transistor into a bipolar device, as this p-type region injects holes into the n-type drift region. Abbreviated IGBT.


An oscillator that uses an avalanche diode as a negative resistance to achieve one-step conversion from direct current to microwave outputs in the gigahertz range.


A junction transistor having an n-type base between a p-type emitter and a p-type collector.


The complex ratio of the reverse voltage of a device that undergoes avalanche breakdown to the reverse current.


The most stressful combination of weight or other forces a building, structure, or mechanical system or device is designed to sustain.

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