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The time rate at which the electric charges of an electron stream are transported through a given surface.

Related Terms


A tachometer in which each rotation of a shaft generates an electric pulse and the time rate of pulses is then measured; classified as capacitory-current, inductory, or interrupted direct-current tachometer.


  1. A rate of rise or fall of a quantity against horizontal distance expressed as a ratio, decimal, fraction, percentage, or the tangent of the angle of inclination. 2. The rate of increase or decrease of one quantity with respect to another. 3. A term used in radionavigation to refer to the spacing between consecutive hyperbolas of a family of hyperbolas per unit time difference. If the gradient is high, a relatively small time-difference error in deter- mining a hyperbolic line of position will result in a relatively high position error. See also GEOMETRIC DILUTION OF PRECISION


A device used in micromotion studies to record a complete work cycle by taking still pictures with long exposures, the motion paths being traced by small electric lamps fastened to the worker's hands or fingers; time is obtained by interrupting the light circuits with a controlled frequency which produces dots on the film.


  1. A ring-shaped auxiliary electrode surrounding one of the plates of a parallelplate capacitor to reduce edge effects. 2. A ring-shaped auxiliary electrode used in an electron tube or other device to modify the electric field or reduce insulator leakage; in a counter tube or ionization chamber a guard ring may also serve to define the sensitive volume. 3. A device used in heat flow experiments to ensure an even distribution of heat, consisting of a ring that surrounds the specimen and is made of a similar material.


A vector quantity which denotes, at once, the time rate and the direction of a linear motion.


The time rate of annealing oven See annealing furnace.


Conceptually, time as determined from the apparent diurnal motion of a fictitious mean sun which moves uniformly along the celestial equator at the average rate of the apparent sun. Actually, Universal Time (UT) is related to the rotation of the earth through its definition in terms of sidereal time. Universal Time at any instant is derived from observations of the diurnal motions of the stars. The time scale determined directly from such observations is slightly dependent on the place of observation; this scale is designated UT0. By removing from UT0 the effect of the variation of the observer’s meridian due to the observed motion of the geographic pole, the scale UT1 is established. A scale designated UT2 results from applying to UT1 an adopted formula for the seasonal variation in the rate of the earth’s rotation. UT1 and UT2 are independent of the location of the observer. UT1 is the same as Greenwich mean time used in navigation.


A device that measures electric power consumed, either at an instant, as in a wattmeter, or averaged over a time interval, as in a demand meter. Also known as power meter.


A reservoir without control gates for storing water over brief periods of time until the stream has the capacity for ordinary flow plus released water; used for flood regulation.


A small subatomic particle that contains a negative electric charge and is of negligible mass.

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