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Forces that actin a single plane; thus the forces are parallel to the plane and their points of application are in the plane.

Related Terms


Solids separator in which the sifting screen oscillates at 300 to 400 revolutions per minute in a plane parallel to the screen.


Parallel to the plane of the horizon; perpendicular to the direction of gravity


A line on a reference ellipsoid which has the same geodetic latitude of every point. A geodetic parallel, other than the equator, is not a geodesic line. In form, it is a small circle whose plane is parallel with the plane of the geodetic equator.


A map projection produced by the direct projection of the points of the ellipsoid (used to represent the earth) by straight lines drawn through them from some given point. The projection is usually made upon a plane tangent to the ellipsoid at the end of the diameter joining the point of projection and the center of the ellipsoid. The plane of projection is usually tangent to the ellipsoid at the center of the area being mapped. he analytical expressions that determine the elements of the projection. If the point of projection is at the center of the ellipsoid, a gnomonic map projection results; if it is at the point opposite the plane’s point of tangency a stereographic map projection; and if at infinity (the projecting lines being parallel to each other), an orthographic map projection. Most map projections are not perspective. Also called GEOMETRIC MAP PROJECTION.


  1. A solid figure having two parallel plane bases bounded by closed congruent curves, and a surface formed by parallel lines con- necting similar points on the two curves. 2. A surface formed by a straight line moving parallel to itself and constantly intersecting a curve. Also called CYLINDRICAL SURFACE.


A plane parallel to the plane of a lens or mirror and passing through the focus.


  1. A plane closed curve all points of which are equidistant from a point within, called the center. A great circle is the intersection of a sphere and a plane through its center; it is the largest circle that can be drawn on a sphere. A small circle is the intersection of a sphere and a plane which does not pass through its center. See also PARALLEL OF ALTITUDE, PARALLEL OF DECLINATION, PARALLEL OF LATITUDE; AZIMUTH CIRCLE, BEARING CIRCLE, DIURNAL CIRCLE, EQUATOR, HOUR CIRCLE, PARASELENIC CIRCLES, POSITION CIRCLE, SPEED CIRCLE, VERTICAL CIRCLE. 2. A section of a plane, bounded by a curve all points of which are equidistant from a point within, called the center.


A state of stress in which two of the principal stresses are always parallel to a given plane and are constant in the normal direction.


To cut or cross. For example, two non parallel lines in a plane intersect in a point, and a plane intersects a sphere in a circle


A directed closed path in the complex frequency plane used in constructing a Nyquist diagram, which runs upward, parallel to the whole length of the imaginary axis at an infinitesimal distance to the right of it, and returns from jn to jn along a semicircle of infinite radius in the right half-plane.

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