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During chemical processing, a second solvent added to the original solvent, generally in small concentrations, to form a mixture that has greatly enhanced solvent powers due to synergism.

Related Terms


Separation by distillation or solvent extraction of a fully miscible liquid mixture of two chemical compounds.


By-products of food and chemical processes, in the form of wastes.


The chemical union of two or more molecules of the same compound to form a larger molecule of 1 new compound called a polymer. By this mechanism the reaction can become self-propagating causing liquids to become more viscous and the end result may even be a solid substance. Such chemical reactions usually give off a great deal of heat.


A chemical compound whose molecules exhibit electrically positive characteristics at one extremity and negative characteristics at the other. Polar compounds are used as additives in many petroleum products. Polarity gives certain molecules a strong affinity for solid surfaces; as lubricant additives (oiliness agents), such molecules plate out to form a tenacious, friction- reducing film. Some polar molecules are oil-soluble at one end and water-soluble at the other end; in lubricants, they act as emulsifiers, helping to form stable oil-water emulsions. Such lubricants are said to have good metal-wetting properties. Polar compounds with a strong attraction for solid contaminants act as detergents in engine oils by keeping contaminants finely dispersed.


A petroleum-refinery process in which naphthas are passed over a catalyst at elevated temperatures and moderate pressures in the presence of added hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gases, to form high-octane BTX aromatics for motor fuels or chemical manufacture.


Nitrogen in liquid form which is used as a low temperature refrigerant in expendable or chemical refrigerating systems.


The lowest temperature at which a liquid gives off sufficient vapor to form a flammable mixture with air near the surface of the liquid. The flashpoint temperature is determined by laboratory testing in a prescribed apparatus.

Establishes the danger point when transferring, pumping, and firing procedures are concerned.


The chemical combination of similar-type molecules to form larger molecules.


The tendency of a substance or mixture to resist chemical change.


A solvent dewaxing process in which a mixture of the solvent and oil containing wax is cooled until the wax solidifies and is then removed by filtration.

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