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During chemical processing, a second solvent added to the original solvent, generally in small concentrations, to form a mixture that has greatly enhanced solvent powers due to synergism.

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SEQUESTER

To form a stable, water-soluble complex.

COMPOUND

(1) chemically speaking, a distinct substance formed by the combination of two or more elements in definite proportions by weight and possessing physical and chemical properties different from those of the combining elements. (2) in petroleum processing, generally connotes fatty oils and similar materials foreign to petroleum added to lubricants to impart special properties.

BALL BEARING

An anti-friction rolling type bearing containing rolling elements in the form of balls.

CLOUD POINT

The temperature at which waxy crystals in an oil or fuel form a cloudy appearance.

CORROSION INHIBITOR

Additive for protecting lubricated metal surfaces against chemical attack by water or other contaminants. There are several types of corrosion inhibitors. Polar compounds wet the metal surface preferentially, protecting it with a film of oil. Other compounds may absorb water by incorporating it in a water-in-oil emulsion so that only the oil touches the metal surface. Another type of corrosion inhibitor combines chemically with the metal to present a non- reactive surface.

CRACKING

The process whereby large molecules are broken down by the application of heat and pressure to form smaller molecules.

DEMULSIBILITY

The ability of a fluid that is insoluble in water to separate from water with which it may be mixed in the form of an emulsion.

False brinelling

False brinelling of needle roller bearings is actually a fretting corrosion of the surface since the rollers are the I.D. of the bearing. Although its appearance is similar to that of brinelling, false brinelling is characterized by attrition of the steel, and the load on the bearing is less than that required to produce the resulting impression. It is the result of a combination of mechanical and chemical action that is not completely understood, and occurs when a small relative motion or vibration is accompanied by some loading, in the presence of oxygen.

CARBON

A non-metallic element - No. 6 in the periodic table. Diamonds and graphite are pure forms of carbon. Carbon is a constituent of all organic compounds. It also occurs in combined form in many inorganic substances; i.e., carbon dioxide, limestone, etc.

BRINELLING

Permanent deformation of the bearing surfaces where the rollers (or balls) contact the races. Brinelling results from excessive load or impact on stationary bearings. It is a form of mechanical damage in which metal is displaced or upset without attrition.
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