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A cryogenic, two-terminal, negative-resistance semiconductor device, consisting essentially of two contacts on a germanium wafer operating in liquid helium.

Related Terms


A liquid-liquid extraction vessel in which perforated plates are used to bring about contact between the two or more liquid phases.


A viscometer in which the liquid whose viscosity is to be measured fills the space between two vertical coaxial cylinders, the inner one suspended by a torsion wire; the outer cylinder is rotated at a constant rate, and the resulting torque on the inner cylinder is measured by the twist of the wire. Also known as rotational viscometer.


A transistor in which there are four layers of alternating nand p-type semiconductor material and the two interior layers are thin compared to the diffusion length. Also known as hook transistor; pn hook transistor.


The interface between two regions in a semiconductor crystal which have been treated so that one is a p-type semiconductor and the other is an n-type semiconductor; it contains a permanent dipole charge layer.


A transistor in which two pn junctions are formed in the semiconductor wafer by gaseous diffusion of both p-type and n-type impurities; an intrinsic region can also be formed.


An instrument in which the difference in pressure between two sources is determined from the vertical distance between the surfaces of a liquid in two legs of an erect or inverted U-shaped tube when each of the legs is connected to one of the sources.


A semiconductor device consisting of four alternate layers of p-type and n-type semiconductor material, with terminal connections to the two outer layers. Also known as npnp diode.


A semiconductor breakdown diode, usually made of silicon, in which avalanche breakdown occurs across the entire pn junction and voltage drop is then essentially constant and independent of current; the two most important types are IMPATT and TRAPATT diodes.


A viscometer in which liquid is drawn into the higher of two glass bulbs joined by a length of capillary tubing, and the time for its meniscus to fall between calibration marks above and below the upper bulb is compared with that for a liquid of known viscosity.


A gage for determining the difference in pressure of two gases, usually by measuring the difference in height of liquid columns in the two sides of a U-tube.

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