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The fractionating column in a natural-gasoline plant in which butane and lighter components are removed.

Related Terms


A fractionating column for removal of pentane and lighter fractions density with temperature. deperm See degauss.


A fractionating column in a gasoline plant for removal of propane and lighter components.


Liquefied Petroleum Gas - this group of products includes propane and butane which can be shipped separately or as a mixture.
The LPG gases are taken out of the raw oil during refining, or from natural gas separation. LPG gases are defined as propane, butane and a mixture of these. Large atmospheric pressure gas carriers carry most of the LPG transported at sea. However, some LPG is transported with intermediate pressure gas carriers. Fully pressurised gas carriers mainly handle coastal trade. LPG can be cooled with water, and most LPG carriers have direct cargo cooling plants that condense the gas against water.
The sea transport of LPG is mainly from The Persian Gulf to Japan and Korea. It is also from the north- west Europe to USA, and from the western Mediterranean to USA and Northwest Europe.
LPG is utilised for energy purposes and in the petro-chemical industry


Lighter aboard ship: A barge carrier designed to act as a shuttle between ports, taking on and discharging barges.


Nilas which is more than 5 centimeters in thickness and somewhat lighter in color than dark nilas


  1. That part of a shadow in which light is partly cut off by an intervening object. The penumbra surrounds the darker UMBRA in which light is completely cut off. 2. The lighter part of a sun spot, surrounding the darker UMBRA.


  1. The darkest part of a shadow in which light is completely cut off by an intervening object. A lighter part surrounding the umbra, in which the light is only partly cut off, is called the PENUMBRA. 2. The darker central portion of a sun spot, surrounded by the lighter PENUMBRA.


  1. Darkness in a region, caused by an obstruction between the source of light and the region. By extension, the term is applied to similar condition when any form of radiant energy is cut off by an obstruction, as in a radar shadow. The darkest part of a shadow in which light is completely cut off is called the UMBRA; the lighter part surrounding the umbra in which the light is only partly cut off is called the PENUMBRA. 2. A region of diminished rainfall on the lee side of a mountain or mountain range, where the rainfall is noticeably less than on the windward side. Usually called RAIN SHADOW.


The number to indicate the stability (consistency) of the oil viscosity with temperature. The lighter the number the more stable the oil is.


This is the abbreviation for Natural Gas Liquids. These are the liquid components found in association with natural gas. Ethane, propane, butane, pentane and pentanes-plus are typical NGLs.
The gas separates by refining raw oil. The composition of wet gas varies from oil field to oil filed. The wet gas consists of Ethane, LPG, Pentane and heavier fractions of hydrocarbons or a mixture of these. Atmospheric pressure gas carriers and semi-pressurised gas carriers carry the most of the wet gas.

Ethane can only be transported by semi-pressurised gas carriers, which have direct cascade cooling plants and are allowed to carry cargo down to -104 deg C. This is because Ethane has a boiling point at atmospheric pressure of -89 deg C. This will create too high condense pressure if using water as cooling medium. The cargo is condensed against Freon R22 or another cooling medium with boiling point at atmospheric pressure lower than -20 deg C.

Wet gas is transported from the Persian Gulf to the East, Europe to USA and some within Europe. There is also some transport of wet gas in the Caribbean to South America.

NGL is utilised for energy purposes and in the petro-chemical industry.

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