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Size-reduction process in which loosely adhered clumps (agglomerates) of powders or crystals are broken apart without further disintegration of the powder or crystal particles themselves.

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A painting process that uses the particle-attracting property of electrostatic charges; direct current of about 100,000 volts is applied to a grid of wires through which the paint is sprayed to charge each particle; the metal objects to be sprayed are connected to the opposite terminal of the high-voltage circuit, so that they attract the particles of paint.


A thermal conversion process using the mass-flow lift principle to give continuous coke circulation; oilwetted particles of coke move downward into the reactor in which cracking, coking, and drying take place; pelleted coke, gas, gasoline, and gas oil are products of the process.


A process for recovery of particles of ore or other material, in which the particles adhere to bubbles and can be removed as part of the froth.


A moving body of solids in which particles (granules, pellets, beads, or briquets) flow downward by gravity through a vessel, while process fluid flows upward; the moving-bed technique is used in blast and shaft furnaces, petroleum catalytic cracking, pellet dryers, and coolers.


A membrane separation process in which particles greater than about 20 nanometers in diameter are screened out of a liquid in which they are suspended.


The process of agglomerating coagulated particles into settable flocs, usually of a gelatinous nature.


Wisps or streaks of water or ice particles falling out of a cloud but evaporating before reaching the earth’s surface as precipitation. Virga is frequently seen trailing from altocumulus and altostratus clouds, but also is discernible below the bases of high-level cumuliform clouds from which precipitation is falling into a dry subcloud layer. It typically exhibits a hooked form in which the streaks descend nearly vertically just under the precipitation source but appear to be almost horizontal at their lower extremities. Such curvature of virga can be produced simply by effects of strong vertical windshear, but ordinarily it results from the fact that droplet or crystal evaporation decreases the particle terminal fall velocity near the ends of the streaks. Also called FALL STREAKS, PRECIPITATION TRAILS.


A particulate wear process by which particles are pressed between two sliding surfaces.


A particulate wear process where high velocity, fluid- entrained particles are directed at target surfaces.


Abrasive wear is caused by hard particles such as ash deposits, metallic particles or catalytic fines from the cracking process of the fuel oil. These hard grains wear down the surface of cylinder liners and rings by continuous ploughing and scratching.
With higher levels of abrasive wear, the surface displays vertical scratches, the size of which depends on the dimensions of the particles involved. These particles can also affect the sides of the rings as they jam in the ring groove, thereby causing "pitting" of the surface. Harmful particles normally enter the engine via the fuel and careful attention to the fuel cleaning system is therefore of utmost importance. abbrasive wear pic

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