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DECLINATIONCIRCLE

 For a telescope with an equatorial mounting, a setting circle attached to the declination axis that shows the declination to which the telescope is pointing.

Related Terms

DECLINATION AXIS

For an equatorial mounting of a telescope, an axis of rotation that is perpendicular to the polar axis and allows the telescope to be pointed at objects of different declinations.

CLOCK DRIVE

The mechanism that causes an equatorial telescope to revolve about its polar axis so that it keeps the same star in its field of view.

EQUATORIAL MOUNTING

The mounting of an equatorial telescope; it has two perpendicular axes, the polar axis (parallel to the earth's axis) that turns on fixed bearings, and the declination axis, supported by the polar axis.

FICTITIOUS EQUATOR

A reference line serving as the origin for measurement of fictitious latitude. A transverse or inverse equator is a meridian the plane of which is perpendicular to the axis of a trans- verse map projection. An oblique equator is a great circle the plane of which is perpendicular to the axis of an oblique map projection. A grid equator is a line perpendicular to a prime grid meridian, at the origin.

EQUATORIAL TELESCOPE

An astronomical telescope that revolves about an axis parallel to the earth's axis and automatically keeps a star on which it has been fixed in its field of view.

CENTRIPETAL

Acting or moving in a direction toward the axis of rotation or the center of a circle along which a body is moving.

EQUATOR

The primary great circle of a sphere or spheroid, such as the earth, perpendicular to the polar axis

COORDINATE

One of a set of magnitudes defining a point in space. If the point is known to be on a given line, only one coordinate is needed; if on a surface, two are required; if in space, three. Cartesian coordinates define a point relative to two intersecting lines, called AXES. If the axes are perpendicular, the coordinates are rectangular; if not perpendicular, they are oblique coordinates. A three- dimensional system of Cartesian coordinates is called space coordinates. Polar coordinates define a point by its distance and direction from a fixed point called the POLE. Direction is given as the angle between a reference radius vector and a radius vector to the point. If three dimensions are involved, two angles are used to locate the radius vector. Space-polar coordinates define a point on the surface of a sphere by (1) its distance from a fixed point at the center, called the POLE (2) the COLATITUDE or angle between the POLAR AXIS (a reference line through the pole) and the RADIUS VECTOR (a straight line connecting the pole and the point)- and (3) the LONGITUDE or angle between a reference plane through the polar axis and a plane through the radius vector and the polar axis. Spherical coordinates define a point on a sphere or spheroid by its angular distances from a primary great circle and from a reference secondary great circle. Geographical or terrestrial coordinates define a point on the surface of the earth. Celestial coordinates define a point on the celestial sphere. The horizon, celestial equator and the ecliptic systems of celestial coordinates are based on the celestial horizon, celestial equator, and the ecliptic, respectively, as the primary great circle.

OBLIQUE EQUATOR

A great circle the plane of which is perpendicular to the axis of an oblique projection. An oblique equator serves as the origin for measurement of oblique latitude. On an oblique Mercator map projection, the oblique equator is the tangent great circle.

CIRCLE OF PERPETUAL OCCULTATION

The circle of the celestial sphere, centered on the polar axis and having a polar distance from the depressed pole approximately equal to the latitude of the observer, within which celestial bodies do not rise. The circle within which bodies do not set Is called the CIRCLE OF PERPETUAL APPARITION.

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