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A well that draws its water from beneath shallow impermeable strata, at depths exceeding 22 feet (6.7 meters).

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A wave which breaks, either because it becomes unstable, usually when it reaches shallow water, or because it dashes against an obstacle. Instability is caused by an increase in wave height and a decrease in the speed of the trough of the wave in shallow water. The momentum of the crest, often aided by the wind, causes the upper part of the wave to move forward faster than the lower part. The crest of a wave which becomes unstable in deep water and topples over or 'breaks' is called a WHITECAP.


A crest of a wave which becomes unstable in deep water, toppling over or 'breaking'. The instability is caused by the too rapid addition of energy from a strong wind. A wave which becomes unstable due shallow water is called a BREAKER.


  1. A shallow sound, pond, or lake generally separated from the open sea. 2. A body of water enclosed by the reefs and islands of an atoll


A type of air whose characteristics are developed over high latitudes, especially Within the subpolar highs. Continental polar air has low surface temperature, low moisture content, and especially in its source regions, has great stability in the lower layers. It is shallow in comparison with arctic air. Maritime polar air initially possesses similar properties to those of continental polar air, but in passing over warmer water it becomes unstable with a higher moisture content.


Shallow water; water over a shoal.


The effect that due to the depth of water, the speed of the vessel and shape of the vessel's hull causes the vessel to sink deeper in the water especially in shallow water and at high speed. The vessel becomes sluggish in responding to the rudder.


A shallow water that is a hazard to navigation.


  1. Having freedom of motion interfered with by collision or entanglement; entangled; the opposite of clear. For instance, a rope is foul when it does not run straight or smoothly, and an anchor is foul when it is caught on an obstruction.
  2. A breach of racing rules.
  3. An area of water treacherous to navigation due to many shallow obstructions such as reefs, sandbars, or many rocks, etc.
  4. Foul the range: To block another vessel from firing her guns at a target.


A harmonic tidal or tidal current constituent with a speed that is an exact multiple of the speed of one of the fundamental constituents derived from the development of the tide-producing force. The presence of overtides is usually attributed to shallow water conditions.


  1. Having little depth; shoal. 2. An area where the depth of water is relatively slight.

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