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Any substance having a definite shape which it does not readily relinquish. More generally, any substance in which the force required to produce a deformation depends upon the magnitude of the deformation rather than upon the rate of deformation.

Related Terms

AGGLOMERATE

The clustering together of a few or many particles into a larger solid mass.

ADHESION

The property of a lubricant that causes it to cling or adhere to a solid surface.

ADSORPTION

Adhesion of the molecules of gases, liquids, or dissolved substances to a solid surface, resulting in relatively high concentration of the molecules at the place of contact; e.g. the plating out of an anti-wear additive on metal surfaces.

CAPILLARITY

A property of a solid-liquid system manifested by the tendency of the liquid in contact with the solid to rise above or fall below the level of the surrounding liquid; this phenomenon is seen in a small bore (capillary) tube.

AMERICAN WIRE GAUGE

A system used in the United States for measuring the size of solid wires. (AWG).

NONCONTACT BEARING

A bearing in which no solid contact occurs between relatively moving surfaces.

MOLY

Molybdenum disulfide, a solid lubricant and friction reducer, colloidally dispersed in some oils and greases.

OXIDATION

Occurs when oxygen attacks petroleum fluids. The process is accelerated by heat, light, metal catalysts and the presence of water, acids, or solid contaminants. It leads to increased viscosity and deposit formation.

POLAR COMPOUND

A chemical compound whose molecules exhibit electrically positive characteristics at one extremity and negative characteristics at the other. Polar compounds are used as additives in many petroleum products. Polarity gives certain molecules a strong affinity for solid surfaces; as lubricant additives (oiliness agents), such molecules plate out to form a tenacious, friction- reducing film. Some polar molecules are oil-soluble at one end and water-soluble at the other end; in lubricants, they act as emulsifiers, helping to form stable oil-water emulsions. Such lubricants are said to have good metal-wetting properties. Polar compounds with a strong attraction for solid contaminants act as detergents in engine oils by keeping contaminants finely dispersed.

SEMISOLID

Any substance having the attributes of both a solid and a liquid. Similar to semiliquid but being more closely related to a solid than a liquid. More generally, any substance in which the force required to produce a deformation depends both on the magnitude and on the rate of the deformation.
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