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The alloying elements used to have a fair degree of solubility and within this range, the solid solutions formed are soft and ductile and are suitable for cold working. Further additions of the alloying element result in the formation of hard particles, accompanied by an increase in strength and a decrease in ductility. Such alloys are suitable for hot-working and for castings.

Copper-Zinc (Brasses)
Up to 39% zinc - cold working alloys, soft and ductile
39% - 45% zinc - hot working alloys
above 45% - material becomes brittle.
Tin improves corrosion resistance.
Manganese is added for the deoxidization producing sounder castings and for improving tensile strength.
Aluminum increases tensile strength and corrosion resistance.
Nickel increases corrosion and erosion resistance.
Copper-Tin (Bronzes)
Additions of up to 10% tin are soluble in copper and form soft ductile alloys which can be cold-worked. Further additions of tine result in the appearance of a hard constituent, such alloys being suitable for hot-working and for castings. The cold worked alloys are used mainly for coinage.
Admiralty Gunmetal (88: 10: 2, Cu: Sn: Zn)
Zinc is present as a deoxidizer and increases fluidity. This alloy is used mainly for castings requiring strength and corrosion resistance. An additional of 1% lead may be used to improve pressure tightness. The alloy may be used for bearings.
15% Tin - Bronze Alloy
Cast 15% tin bronze is suitable for bearings.
Phosphor - Bronzes
Phosphorus increases strength and corrosion resistance. Alloys containing up to 8% and 0.3% phosphorus can be cold worked and are used for instrument springs and steam turbine blades. Cast alloys contain up to 13 tin and up to 18% phosphorus is used mainly for bearings.
Aluminium - Bronzes
Alloys containing up to 9.4% aluminum are soft and ductile and are suitable for hot and cold working. Further additions result in the appearance of a hard constituent and are used for the hot worked condition and for castings. Aluminum bronzes have good mechanical properties, wear, fatigue and corrosion resistance. The 7% aluminum alloy often contains small additions of nickel, iron and manganese and is used for marine condenser tubes.
The 10% alloy with additions of nickel, iron and manganese is used for propellers.
Copper Nickel Alloys (Monel Metals)
Copper and nickel form solid solutions for all proportions. These alloys may be hot or cold worked and have excellent corrosion resistance. The copper-rich alloys are known as cupro-nickel.(70: 30: Cu: Ni) used for condenser tubes (Cupro-Nickel)
(29.5: 68.5: 1: 1, Cu: Ni: Fe: Mn) Monel Metal. This alloy combines good mechanical properties and high corrosion resistance.
Bearing Metals
Alloys used for bearing should have a low coefficient of friction, be sufficiently hard to resist wear, tough to withstand shock loading, have the strength to support the working load, be sufficiently plastic to allow self-alignment and have high thermal conductivity to dissipate heat when running. The alloys employed usually consist of hard particles in a soft matrix. The hard particles provide the wear resistance while the matrix provides the mechanical properties.

Copper Base Bearing Alloys
Phosphor - bronzes containing 10-13% tin and 0.3 - 1% phosphorus and tin bronzes containing 10-15% tin are used for bearings where loading is heavy. Lead bronzes are useful in that they have a high resistance to wear and have good thermal conductivity enabling the bearings to remain cool. Sintered bearings are made by heating a compressed powder mixture of 90% copper and 10% tin with an addition of graphite. These bearings being semi-porous retain lubricant.

Yorcalbro - Copper - Zinc Alloy

22% zinc 2% aluminium 0.04% arsenic.



Related Terms

BEARING METAL

Alloys used for bearings should have the following characteristics:

  • Have a low coefficient of friction
  • Be sufficiently hard to resist wear
  • Be tough to withstand shock loading
  • Have the strength to support the working load
  • Be sufficient plastic to allow self-alignment
  • Have a high thermal conductivity to dissipate heat when running.

The alloys employed usually consist of hard particles in a soft matrix. The hard particles provide the wear resistance while the matrix provides the mechanical properties.

Alloys used for bearing should have a low co-efficient of friction, be sufficiently hard to resist wear, tough to withstand shock loading, have strength to support the working load, be sufficiently plastic to allow self alignment and have high thermal conductivity to dissipate heat when running. The alloys employed usually consist of hard particles in a soft matrix. The hard particles provide the wear resistance while the matrix provides the mechanical properties.

Copper Base Bearing Alloys

Phosphor - bronzes containing 10-13% tin and 0.3 - 1% phosphorus and tin bronzes containing 10-15% tin are used for bearings where loading is heavy. Lead bronzes are useful in that they have a high resistance to wear and have good thermal conductivity enabling the bearings to remain cool. Sintered bearings are made by heating a compressed powder mixture of 90% copper and 10% tin with an addition of graphite. These bearings being semi-porous retain lubricant.

Yorcalbro - Copper - Zinc Alloy

22% zinc 2% aluminium 0.04% arsenic.

BRONZE

A Copper-Tin alloy. Additions of up to 10% tin are soluble in copper and form soft ductile alloys which can be cold-worked. Further additions of tine result in the appearance of a hard constituent, such alloys being suitable for hot-working and for castings. The cold worked alloys are used mainly for coinage.

Admiralty Gunmetal (88: 10: 2, Cu: Sn: Zn)

Zinc is present as a deoxidizer and increases fluidity. This alloy is used mainly for castings requiring strength and corrosion resistance. An additional of 1% lead may be used to improve pressure tightness. The alloy may be used for bearings.

Cast 15% tin bronze is suitable for bearings.

Phosphorus increases strength and corrosion resistance.

Alloys containing up to 8% and 0.3% phosphorus can be cold worked and are used for instrument springs and steam turbine blades. Cast alloys contain up to 13 tin and up to 18% phosphorus are used mainly for bearings.

Alloys containing up to 9.4% aluminum are soft and ductile and are suitable for hot and cold working. Further additions result in the appearance of a hard constituent and are used for the hot worked condition and for castings. Aluminum bronzes have good mechanical properties, wear, fatigue and corrosion resistance. The 7% aluminum alloy often contains small additions of nickel, iron and manganese and is used for marine condenser tubes.

The 10% alloy with additions of nickel, iron and manganese is used for propellers.

DE-ZINCIFICATION

The common leaching of zinc from the alloy brass in the marine environment that renders it brittle.

MONEL METAL

Copper and nickel form solid solutions for all proportions. These alloys may be hot or cold worked and have excellent corrosion resistance.

(29.5 Ni:68.5 Fe:1 Mn:1) Monel Metal. This alloy combines good mechanical properties and high corrosion resistance.

ZINC

(Zn): a metal used for rust proof plating (galvanising), sacrificial anodes and a component of the alloy of brass (zinc and copper). See de- zincification.

MANGANESE BRONZE

Copper and zinc alloy with traces of aluminium and manganese.

SHAFT SLEEVE

A brass or stainless steel replaceable sleeve placed over the shaft where it passes through the stuffing box. Protects the shaft from wear by the packing.

LANTERN RING

A brass rings for letting fluid to be equally distributed around shaft for cooling and lubricating the packing. Adds in sealing the pump from air leaks up the shaft if the pump is working with a suction lift.

ARMATURE COIL

The loop or coil of copper wire, placed on the armature core, and forming part of the winding.

BRAZE

To join by heat using a hard solder (spelter), typically of brass or bronze.

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