[SYS ENG] A process that is too complex to be modeled by using conventional mathematical methods, and that gives rise to data that are, in general, soft, with no precise boundaries; examples are large-scale engineering complex systems, social systems, economic systems, management systems, medical diagnostic processes, and human perception.

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An eddy current in a piece of electrical machinery; gives rise to energy losses.


Air-agitated, solidliquid mixing vessel in which the air is injected into the bottom of a center draft tube; air and solids rise through the tube, with solids exiting the top of the tube and falling through the bulk of the liquid.


Steepest slope a vehicle can negotiate in low gear; usually expressed in precentage of slope, namely, the ratio between the vertical rise and the horizontal distance traveled; sometimes expressed by the angle between the slope and the horizontal.


A phenomenon in which a temperature gradient in a mixture of substances gives rise to a concentration gradient.


1. An experiment to detect intermolecular forces in a gas, in which one measures the heat absorbed when gas in a small vessel is allowed to expand into a second vessel which has been evacuated. 2. An experiment to measure the mechanical equivalent of heat, in which falling weights cause paddles to rotate in a closed container of water whose temperature rise is measured by a thermometer.


A refinement of the Griffiths method for determining the J mechanical equivalent of heat, in which a large mass of water, efficiently stirred, is used, the temperature rise of the water is small, and the temperature of the surroundings is carefully controlled.


The rise of a deck, athwartship


The oscillatory vertical rise and fall, due to the entire hull being lifted by the force of the sea. Also called HEAVING


A type of filter capacity test in which a clogging contaminant is added to the influent of a filter, under specified test conditions, to produce a given rise in pressure drop across the filter or until a specified reduction of flow is reached. Filter life may be expressed as test time required to reach terminal conditions at a specified contaminant addition rate.


A property of a solid-liquid system manifested by the tendency of the liquid in contact with the solid to rise above or fall below the level of the surrounding liquid; this phenomenon is seen in a small bore (capillary) tube.

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