The application of scientific methods and engineering principles to civil engineering problems through acquiring, interpreting, and using knowledge of materials of the crust of the earth.


Related Terms

ICE RIND

A brittle shiny crust of ice formed on a quiet surface by direct freezing or from grease ice, usually in water of low salinity. Of thickness to about 5 centimeters, ice rind is easily broken by wind or swell, commonly breaking into rectangular pieces.

TUBERCLE

A protective crust of corrosion products (rust) which builds up over a pit caused by the loss of metal due to corrosion.

GEOLOGICAL OCEANOGRAPHY

The study of the floors and margins of the oceans, including description of submarine relief features, chemical and physical composition of bottom materials, interaction of sediments and rocks with air and seawater, and action of various forms of wave energy in the submarine crust of the earth.

NILAS

A thin elastic crust of ice, easily bending on waves and swell and under pressure, thrusting in a pattern of interlocking 'fingers'. Nilas has a matte surface and is up to 10 centimeters in thickness. It may be subdivided into DARK NILAS and LIGHT NILAS.

EFFLORESCENCE

The powder or crust formed on a substance when moisture is evaporated from it.

LITHOSPHERE

The outer layers of the earths crust and mantle.

HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING

A branch of civil engineering concerned with the design, erection, and construction of sewage disposal plants, waterworks, dams, water-operated power plants, and such.

CIVIL ENGINEERING

The planning, design, construction, and maintenance of fixed structures and ground facilities for industry, transportation, use and control of water, or occupancy.

CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING

A specialized branch of civil engineering concerned with the planning, execution, and control of construction operations for projects such as highways, dams, utility lines, and buildings.

ENGINEERING GEOLOGY

The application of education and experience in geology and other geosciences to solve geological problems posed by civil engineering structures.

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