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  1. An instrument used to measure continuously or at intervals a condition that must be kept within prescribed limits, such as radioactivity at some point in a nuclear reactor, a variable quantity in an automatic process control system, the transmissions in a communication channel or bank, or the position of an aircraft in flight. 2. To use meters or special techniques to measure such a condition. 3. A person who watches a monitor.

Related Terms


The analysis of the behavior of the output variable of an automatic control system as the system changes from one steady-state condition to another in terms of such quantities as maximum overshoot, rise time, and response time.


The time required for the controlled variable to reach and stay within a predetermined band about the control point following any change of the independent variable or operating condition in a control system. Also known as settling time.


An instrument that continuously measures the value of a variable quantity or condition and then automatically acts on the controlled equipment to correct any deviation from a desired preset value. Also known as automatic regulator; controller.


Automatic safety switches incorporated into the boiler burner management system which will shut down the combustion process if an unsafe boiler condition exists.


  1. A series of operations in petroleum refining or natural-gas processing in which the steps are repeated periodically in the same sequence. 2. A periodic change of the controlled variable from one value to another in an automatic control system.


An instrument consisting of a small drill or blunt indenter point under pressure; used to measure hardness of metals and other materials.


Energy transformation process in which the resultant condition lacks the driving potential needed to reverse the process; the measure of this loss is expressed by the entropy increase of the system.


Three numerical quantities that are used as a measure of the steady-state errors of an automatic control system when the system is subjected to constant, ramp, or parabolic inputs.


An automatic controller in which the relation between the state variables of the process under control and the action variables, whose values are computed from observations of the state variables, is given as a set of fuzzy implications or as a fuzzy relation.


In process automatic-control work, material or energy within a process system of which the manipulated (controlled) variable is a condition or characteristic.

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