Training manuals for Life Saving Appliances and Fire Fighting systems and equipment shall be provided in the crew mess room, recreation room or in each crew cabin. The training manuals shall explain the following in detail: Emergency procedures including alarm signals, general instructions and safety practice onboard, specific information on equipment, operation of equipment

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A bulk CO2 fire extinguishing system consists essentially of one or more pressure tanks, refrigerating machinery and the appropriate network of pipes for distributing the gas around the machinery spaces.

The pressure vessels are normally arranged as cylindrical tanks fabricated to class 1 construction. Low temperature steels fully tested and stress relieved are used and the vessels are mounted on supports capable of withstanding collision shocks. The tank is heavily insulated and covered with metal cladding, the working temperature and pressure being - 20°c and 21 bar.

Internal cooling coils are connected to dual refrigerating units, the latter being controlled automatically by pressure switches. One unit is sufficient to deal with the heat ingress into the CO2 and is rated to operated for more than 18 hours per 24 hours when the ambient temperature is +38°C. The other unit is standby. Either water or air cooling, can be arranged. The duty from main to standby unit can be reversed to equalise running hours. The instrument panel contains tank contents gauge, pressure gauge and alarms to indicate high or low liquid level, high or low CO2 pressure and the refrigerator controls.

To ensure a dangerous high pressure condition does not exist if a serious refrigeration fault develops, pressure relief valves are fitted, discharging directly to atmosphere. The valves are mounted on a changeover valve and are set to discharge CO2 gas if the pressure in the vessel rises above the design pressure of 23.8 bar. Each valve in turn can be isolated for removal and periodic testing.

The vessels are fitted with a capacitance type continuous indicator, together with a standby liquid level indicator which ensures that the CO2 liquid level can always be checked approximately by opening the standby liquid level indicator valve which will flood the pipe to the same level as the pressure vessel. A frost line appears due to the low temperature of the liquid CO2. Closing the valve will cause the CO2 to vaporise back into the pressure vessel.

The filling and balance lines are normally run to the main deck port and starboard sides for hose connections to be made to a road tanker. The balance line is used to equalise pressure with the road tanker during the filling operation.

The liquid CO2 discharge is through a 150mm bore pipe fitted with an isolating valve but the quantity of CO2 discharged into the various spaces is controlled by timed opening of a discharge valve. A relief valve is fitted which will relieve excess pressure in the discharge pipe should the isolating valve be closed with liquid CO2 trapped in the discharge. Automatic or remote operation can be achieved by utilising CO2 gas pressure from the top of the tank as the operating medium.

Due to the considerably reduced amount of steel, the storage tank compared with cylinders gives and approximate 50% weight saving and because low pressure CO2 has a greater density than CO2 at ambient temperature, the volume it occupies is considerably less in terms of deck space. Also, low pressure CO2 usually costs considerably less than CO2 supplied in cylinders.

Apart from the incorporated alarm systems the tank and its instrument panel along with the refrigeration units should be examined regularly. Contents gauges should be checked to ensure no leakage has taken place since the last inspection. The tightness of the relief valves are usually checked by means of rubber balloons secured over the ends of waste pipes, any inflation of balloons telling its own story. Two sets of relief valves are fitted, the LP set at 24.1 bar and HP set at 26.5 bar. These valves are designed especially for use with CO2.

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