The electrical potential which an atom acquires when it gains one or more electrons; a characteristic of an anion.

Related Terms


An electron emitted by the photoelectric effect.


The ratio of the frequency of radiation causing emission of photoelectrons to the voltage corresponding to the energy absorbed by a photoelectron; equal to Planck's constant divided by the electron charge.


An extrinsic semiconductor in which the conduction electron density exceeds the hole density.


Germanium to which more impurity atoms of donor type (with valence 5, such as antimony) than of acceptor type (with valence 3, such as indium) have been added, with the result that the conduction electron density exceeds the hole density.


To vary the amplitude, frequency, or phase of a wave, or vary the velocity of the electrons in an electron beam in some characteristic manner.


The type of carrier, that is, electron or hole, that constitutes more than half the carriers in a semiconductor.


The use of electron spin (as opposed to charge) in electronic 341 magnetoelectronics magnetometer devices. Also known as spin electronics; spintronics.


A fundamental unit of magnetic flux, the total magnetic flux in a fluxoid in a type II superconductor, equal to h/(2e), where h is Planck's constant and e is the magnitude of the electron charge, or approxiiron, nickel, or titanium, or nonmagnetic deposits which either contain magnetic gangue minerals or are associated with magnetic structures.


A technique used for integrated circuit fabrication in which a silicon slice is coated uniformly with a radiation-sensitive film, the resist, and an exposing source (such as light, x-rays, or an electron beam) illuminates selected areas of the surface through an intervening master template for a particular pattern.


1. A device whose light transmission can be made to vary in accordance with an externally applied electrical quantity, such as volatage, current, electric field, or magnetic field, or an electron beam. 2. Any directview electronic display optimized for reflecting or transmitting an image with an independent collimated light source for projection purposes.

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