Number of thermocouples used in series to create a higher voltage.

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Ramp rate is used in bringing a turbine up to operating temperature and is the degrees Celsius rise per hour that metal surfaces are exposed to when bringing a machine to rated conditions. Manufacturers specify ramp rates or their machines in order to avoid thermal stresses. Thermocouples are used in measuring metal temperatures.


A pyrheliometer of the thermoelectric type; radiation is allowed to fall on two concentric silver rings, the outer covered with magnesium oxide and the inner covered with lampblack; a system of thermocouples (thermopile) is used to measure the temperature difference between the rings; attachments are provided so that measurements of direct and diffuse solar radiation may be obtained.


An instrument for measuring the total solar energy from the sun and sky striking a horizontal surface, in which a thermopile measures the temperature difference between white and black portions of a thermally insulated horizontal target within a partially evacuated transparent sphere or hemisphere.


A metal box, with faces having different surface finishes, in which water is heated and next to which a thermopile is placed in order to compare the heat emission properties of different surfaces.


A thermopile used in some types of radiation instruments; alternate junctions of series-connected manganan-constantan molybdenum, added as ferromolybdenum or calcium molybdenum; increases strength, toughness, and wear resistance.

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