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# DECREASING RANGE

 When two boats are approaching each other from any angle and this angle remains the same over time (constant bearing) they are on a collision course. Because of the implication of disaster (ships might collide) it has come to mean a problem or an obstacle which is heading your way. Often used in the sense of a warning, as in 'watch out for this problem you might not see coming.

## Related Terms

### LOCAL MEAN TIME

The arc of the celestial equator, or the angle at the celes- tial pole, between the lower branch of the local celestial meridian and the hour circle of the mean sun, measured westward from the lower branch of the local celestial meridian through 24 hours; local hour angle of the mean sun, expressed in time units, plus 12 hours. Local mean time at the Greenwich meridian is called Greenwich mean time, or Universal Time.

### SIDEREAL TIME

Time defined by the daily rotation of the earth with respect to the vernal equinox of the first point of Aries. Sidereal time is numerically measured by the hour angle of the equinox, which represents the position of the equinox in the daily rotation. The period of one rotation of the equinox in hour angle, between two successive upper meridian transits, is a sidereal day. It is divided into 24 sidereal hours, reckoned at upper transit which is known as sidereal noon. The true equinox is at the intersection of the true celestial equator of date with the ecliptic of date; the time measured by its daily rotation is apparent sidereal time. The position of the equinox is affected by the nutation of the axis of rotation of the earth, and the nutation consequently introduces irregular periodic inequities into the apparent sidereal time and the length of the sidereal day. The time measured by the motion of the mean equinox of date, affected only by the secular inequalities due to the precession of the axis, is mean sidereal time. The maximum difference between apparent mean sidereal times is only a little over a second and its greatest daily change is a little more than a hundredth of a second. Because of its variable rate, apparent sidereal time is used by astronomers only as a measure of epoch; it is not used for time inter- val. Mean sidereal time is deduced from apparent sidereal time by applying the equation of equinoxes.

### ANOMALY

1. Departure from the strict characteristics of the type, pattern, scheme, etc. 2. An angle used in the mathematical description of the orbit of one body about another. It is the angle between the radius vector of the body and the line of apsides and is measured from pericenter in the direction of motion. When the radius vector is from the center of the primary to the orbiting body, the angle is called true anomaly. When the radius vector is from the center of the primary to a fictitious body moving with a uniform angular velocity in such a way that its period is equal to that of the actual body, the angle is called mean anomaly. When the radius vector is from the center of the elliptical orbit to the point of intersection of the circle defined by the semimajor axis with the line perpendicular to the semimajor axis and passing through the orbiting body, the angle is called eccentric anomaly or eccentric angle. 3. Departure of the local mean value of a meteorological element from the mean value for the latitude.

### LOCAL APPARENT TIME

The arc of the celestial equator, or the angle at the celestial pole, between the lower branch of the local celestial meridian and the hour circle of the apparent or true sun, measured westward from the lower branch of the local celestial meridian through 24 hours; local hour angle of the apparent or true sun, expressed in time units, plus 12 hours. Local apparent time at the Greenwich meridian is called Greenwich apparent time.

### BALLISTIC TABLE

Compilation of ballistic data from which trajectory elements such as angle of fall, range to summit, time of flight, and ordinate at any time, can be obtained.

### LOCAL LUNAR TIME

The arc of the celestial equator, or the angle at the celes- tial pole, between the lower branch of the local celestial meridian and the hour circle of the moon, measured westward from the lower branch of the local celestial meridian through 24 hours; local hour angle of the moon, expressed in time units, plus 12 hours. Local lunar time at the Greenwich meridian is called Greenwich lunar time.

### UNIVERSAL TIME

Conceptually, time as determined from the apparent diurnal motion of a fictitious mean sun which moves uniformly along the celestial equator at the average rate of the apparent sun. Actually, Universal Time (UT) is related to the rotation of the earth through its definition in terms of sidereal time. Universal Time at any instant is derived from observations of the diurnal motions of the stars. The time scale determined directly from such observations is slightly dependent on the place of observation; this scale is designated UT0. By removing from UT0 the effect of the variation of the observer’s meridian due to the observed motion of the geographic pole, the scale UT1 is established. A scale designated UT2 results from applying to UT1 an adopted formula for the seasonal variation in the rate of the earth’s rotation. UT1 and UT2 are independent of the location of the observer. UT1 is the same as Greenwich mean time used in navigation.

### SOLAR TIME

Time based upon the rotation of the earth relative to the sun. Solar time may be classified as mean if the mean sun is the reference; or as apparent if the apparent sun is the reference. The difference between mean and apparent time is called EQUATION OF TIME. Solar time may be further classified according to the reference meridian, either the local or Greenwich meridian or addition- ally in the case of mean time, a designated zone meridian. Standard and daylight saving or summer time are variations of zone time. Time may also be designated according to the timepiece, as chronometer time or watch time, the time indicated by these instruments.

### HARMONIC FUNCTION

Any real function that satisfies a certain equation. In its simplest form, as used in tide and tidal current predictions, it is a quantity that varies as the cosine of an angle that increases uniformly with time

### LOCAL SIDEREAL TIME

Local hour angle of the vernal equinox, expressed in time units; the arc of the celestial equator, or the angle at the celestial pole, between the upper branch of the local celestial meridian and the hour circle of the vernal equinox, measured westward from the upper branch of the local celestial meridian through 24 hours. Local sidereal time at the Greenwich meridian is called Greenwich sidereal time.

### Related questions

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