1. The apparent displacement of a celestial body in the direction of motion of the earth in its orbit caused by the motion of the earth combined with the finite velocity of light. When, in addition to the combined effect of the velocity of light and the motion of the earth, account is taken of the motion of the celestial body in space during the interval that the light is traveling to the earth from the luminous body, as in the case of planets, the phenomenon is termed planetary aberration. The aberration due to the rotation of the earth on its axis is termed diurnal aberration or daily aberration. The aberration due to the revolution of the earth about the sun is termed annual aberration. The aberration due to the motion of the center of mass of the solar system in space is termed secular aberration but is not taken into account in practical astronomy.
  2. The convergence to different foci, by a lens or mirror, of parallel rays of light. In a single lens having spherical surfaces, aberration may be caused by differences in the focal lengths of the various parts of the lens: rays passing through the outer part of the lens come to a focus nearer the lens than do rays passing through its central part. This is termed spherical aberration and, being due to the faulty figure of the lens, is eliminated by correcting that figure. A lens so corrected is called an aplanatic lens. Aberration may also result from differences in the wavelengths of light of different colors: light of the shorter wavelengths (violet end of the spectrum) comes to a focus nearer the lens than light of the longer wavelengths (red end of the spectrum). This is termed chromatic aberration, and is practically eliminated over a moderate range of wavelengths by using a composite lens, called an achromatic lens, composed of parts having different dispersive powers.


Related Terms

ABERRATION CONSTANT

The measure of the maximum angle between the true direction and the apparent direction of a celestial body as observed from earth due to aberration. It has a value of 20.496 seconds of arc. The aberration angle depends upon the ratio of the velocity of the earth in its orbit and the velocity of light in addition to the angle between the direction of the light and the direction of motion of the observing telescope. The maximum value is obtained when the celestial body is at the pole of the ecliptic.

SIDEREAL TIME

Time defined by the daily rotation of the earth with respect to the vernal equinox of the first point of Aries. Sidereal time is numerically measured by the hour angle of the equinox, which represents the position of the equinox in the daily rotation. The period of one rotation of the equinox in hour angle, between two successive upper meridian transits, is a sidereal day. It is divided into 24 sidereal hours, reckoned at upper transit which is known as sidereal noon. The true equinox is at the intersection of the true celestial equator of date with the ecliptic of date; the time measured by its daily rotation is apparent sidereal time. The position of the equinox is affected by the nutation of the axis of rotation of the earth, and the nutation consequently introduces irregular periodic inequities into the apparent sidereal time and the length of the sidereal day. The time measured by the motion of the mean equinox of date, affected only by the secular inequalities due to the precession of the axis, is mean sidereal time. The maximum difference between apparent mean sidereal times is only a little over a second and its greatest daily change is a little more than a hundredth of a second. Because of its variable rate, apparent sidereal time is used by astronomers only as a measure of epoch; it is not used for time inter- val. Mean sidereal time is deduced from apparent sidereal time by applying the equation of equinoxes.

AZUSA

A continuous-wave, high-accuracy, phase-comparison, single-station tracking system operating at C-band and giving two direction cosines and slant range which can be used to determine space position and velocity of a vehicle (usually a rocket or a missile).

STAR

A large self-luminous celestial body. Stars are generally at such great distances from the earth that they appear to the eye to be fixed in space relative to each other. Comets, meteors, and nebulae may also be selfluminous, but are much smaller. Two stars appearing close together are called a double star, an optical double star if they appear close because they are in nearly the same line of sight but differ greatly in distance from the observer, a physical double star if in nearly the same line of sight and at approximately the same distance from the observer. A system of two stars that revolve about their common center of mass is called a binary star. A group of three or more stars so close together that they appear as a single star is called a multiple star. A group of stars physically close together is called a star cluster. A variable star changes in magnitude. A star which suddenly becomes many times brighter than previously, and then gradually fades, is called a nova. The brightest planet appearing in the western sky during evening twilight is called evening star, and the brightest one appearing in the eastern sky during morning twilight is called morning star. A shooting star or meteor is a solid particle too small to be seen until it enters the earth’s atmosphere, when it is heated to incandescence by friction of the air.

REVOLUTION

Circular motion about an axis usually external to the body. The terms REVOLUTION and ROTATION are often used interchangeably but, with reference to the motions of a celestial body, REVOLUTION refers to the motion in an orbit or about an axis external to the body while ROTATION refers to motion about axis within the body. Thus, the earth revolves about the sun annually and rotates about its axis daily.

PROPER MOTION

The component of the space motion of a celestial body perpendicular to line of sight, resulting in the change of a stars apparent position relative to other stars. Proper motion is expressed in angular units.

SIDEREAL PERIOD

  1. The length of time required for one revolution of a celestial body about a primary, with respect to the stars. 2. The interval between two successive returns of an artificial earth satellite in orbit to the same geocentric right ascension.

HELIOCENTRIC PARALLAX

The difference in the apparent direction or positions of a celestial body outside the solar system, as observed from the earth and sun. Also called STELLAR PARALLAX, ANNUAL PARALLAX

GEOCENTRIC PARALLAX

The difference in apparent direction of a celestial body from a point on the surface of the earth and from the center of the earth. This difference varies with the body's altitude and distance from the earth. Also called DIURNAL PARALLAX.

SPEED

Rate of motion. The terms SPEED and VELOCITY are often used interchangeably but SPEED is a scalar, having magnitude only while VELOCITY is a vector quantity, having both magnitude and direction. Rate of motion in a straight line is called linear speed, while change of direction per unit time is called angular velocity. Subsonic, sonic, and supersonic refer to speeds respectively less than, equal to, greater than the speed of sound in standard air at sea level. Transonic speeds are those in the range in which flow patterns change from subsonic to supersonic, or vice versa.

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