The horizontal coordinate of a set of rectangular coordinates. Also used in a similar sense in connection with oblique coordinates. absolu

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The vertical coordinate of a set of rectangular coordinates. Also used in a similar sense in connection with oblique coordinates.


A power space relative to another without reference to the distance between them; may be either threedimensional or two-dimensional, the horizontal and set points.


An instrument consisting of a circle graduated in degrees, to which is attached one fixed arm and two arms pivoted at the center and provided with clamps so that they can be set at any angle to the fixed arm, within the limits of the instrument. It is used for finding a ship’s position when the horizontal angles between three fixed and known points are measured.


To set the horizontal cross hair of a theodolite in the direction of a grade when establishing a grade between two points of known level.


  1. The ability of an optical system to distinguish between individual objects; the degree of ability to make such a separation, called RESOLVING POWER, is expressed as the minimum distance between two objects that can be separated. 2. The degree of ability of a radar set to indicate separately the echoes of two targets in range, bearing, and elevation. Resolution in range is the minimum range difference between separate targets at the same bearing which will allow both to appear separately; Resolution in bearing is the minimum horizontal angular separation between two targets at the same range which will allow both to appear separately. Resolution in elevation is the minimum separation in the vertical plane between two contacts at the same range and bearing which will allow both to appear as distinct echoes.


An instrument for converting angles measured on an oblique plane to their corresponding projections on a horizontal plane; the rectoblique plotter and the photoangulator are types.


Paper ruled with lines to aid in the plotting of coordinates. In its most common form, it has two sets of parallel lines, usually at right angles to each other, when it is also called CROSS- SECTION PAPER. A type ruled with two sets of mutually-perpendicular, parallel lines spaced according to the logarithms of consec- utive numbers is called logarithmic coordinate papa or semilogarithmic coordinate paper as both or only one set of lines is spaced logarithmically. A type ruled with concentric circles and radial lines from the common center is called polar coordinate paper. Also called GRAPH PAPER.


Magnitudes defining a point relative to two intersecting non-perpendicular lines, called AXES. The magnitudes indicate the distance from each axis, measured along a parallel to the other axis. The horizontal distance is called the abscissa and the other distance the ordinate. This is a form of CARTESIAN COORDINATES.


A set of standards which define the accuracy with which features of U.S. maps are to be portrayed. 1. Horizontal accuracy: For maps at publication scales larger than 1:20,000, 90 percent of all well-defined features, with the exception of those unavoidably displaced by exaggerated symbolization, will be located within 0.85 mm of their geographic positions as referred to the map projection; for maps at publication scales of 1:20,000 or smaller, 0.50 mm. 2. Vertical accuracy: 90 percent of all contours will be accurate within one-half of the basic contour interval. Discrepancies in the accuracy of contours and elevations beyond this tolerance may be decreased by assuming a horizontal displacement within 0.50 mm. Also called MAP ACCURACY STANDARDS.


  1. A line making the same oblique angle with all fictitious meridians of an oblique Mercator map projection. Oblique parallels and meridians may be considered special cases of the oblique rhumb line. 2. Any rhumb line, real or fictitious, making an oblique angle with its meridians. In this sense the expression is used to distinguish such rhumb lines from parallels and meridians, real or fictitious, which may be included in the expression rhumb line.

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