1. An artificial satellite which transmits an electromagnetic signal. A satellite with the capability to transmit, repeat or retransmit electromagnetic information, as contrasted with PASSIVE SATELLITE.
  2. As defined by International Telecommunications Union (ITU), an earth satellite carrying a station intended to transmit or re transmit radio communication signals.

Related Terms

GROUP REPETITION INTERVAL

The specified time interval of a Loran C chain for all stations of the chain to transmit their pulse groups. For each chain a minimum group repetition interval (GRI) is selected of sufficient duration to provide time for each station to transmit its pulse group and additional time between each pulse group so that signals from two or more stations cannot overlap in time anywhere within the coverage area. The GRI is normally stated in terms of tens of microseconds; i.e., the GRI having a duration of 79,900 microseconds is stated as 7900.

HELIOCENTRIC PARALLAX

The difference in the apparent direction or positions of a celestial body outside the solar system, as observed from the earth and sun. Also called STELLAR PARALLAX, ANNUAL PARALLAX

GROUND ABSORPTION

The dissipation of energy in radio waves because of absorption by the ground over which the waves are transmitted.

HORIZON

The great circle of the celestial sphere midway between the zenith and nadir, or a line resembling or approximating such a circle. The line where earth and sky appear to meet, and the projection of this line upon the celestial sphere, is called the visible or apparent horizon. A line resembling the visible horizon but above or below it is called a false horizon. The circle of the celestial sphere-formed by the intersection of the celestial sphere and a plane perpendicular to the zenith-nadir line is called sensible horizon if the plane is through any point, such as the eye of an observer; geoidal horizon if through any sea-level point; and celestial or rational horizon if through the center of the earth. The geometrical horizon was originally considered identi- cal with the celestial horizon, but the expression is now more commonly used to refer to the intersection of the celestial

HYDROLANT

A radio message disseminated by the National Imagery and Mapping Agency and restricted to important marine incidents or navigational changes which affect navigational safety. The HYDROLANT broadcast covers those water areas outside and eastward of NAVAREA IV in the Atlantic Ocean. HYDROLANTS constitute part of the U.S. long range radio navigational warning system. The text of HYDROLANTS issued during a week which are in effect are available through NAVINFONET and are printed in the weekly Notice to Mariners.

HOP

Travel of a radio wave to the ionosphere and back to earth. The number of hops a radio signal has experienced is usually designated by the expression one-hop, two-hop, multihop, etc

HYDROPAC

A radio message disseminated by the National Imagery and mapping Agency and restricted to important marine incidents or navigational changes which affect navigational safety. The HYDROPAC broadcast covers those water areas outside of NAVAREA XII in the Pacific Ocean. HYDROPACS constitute part of the U.S. long range radio navigational warning system. The text of HYDROPACS issued during a week which is in effect are available through NAVINFONET and are printed in the weekly Notice to Mariners.

HORIZONTAL GEODETIC DATUM

The basis for computations of horizontal control surveys in which the curvature of the earth is considered It consists of the astronomical and geodetic latitude and the astronom- ical and geodetic longitude of an initial point (origin); an azimuth of a line from this point; the parameters (radius and flattening) of the reference ellipsoid; and the geoidal separation at the origin. A change in any of these quantities affects every point on the datum. For this reason, while positions within a system are directly and accurately relatable, those points from different datums must be transformed to a common datum for consistency. The horizontal geodetic datum may extend over a continent or be limited to a small area.

INFERIOR CONJUNCTION

The conjunction of an inferior planet and the sun when the planet is between the earth and the sun

HYDROSPHERE

The water portion of the earth as distinguished from the solid part, called the LITHOSPHERE, and from the gaseous outer envelope, called the ATMOSPHERE

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