An ideal emitter which radiates energy at the maximum possible rate per unit area at each wavelength for any given temper- ature. A blackbody also absorbs all the radiant energy in the near visible spectrum incident upon it. No actual substance behaves as a true blackbody.

A series of images formed when a beam of radiant energy is separated into its various wavelength components. 2. The entire range of electromagnetic radiation, or any part of it used for a specific purpose, such as the radio spectrum (10 kilohertz to 300 gigahertz).

The emission of radiant energy which would take place from a blackbody at a fixed temperature; it takes place at a rate expressed by the Stefan-Boltzmann law, with a spectral energy distribution described by Planck's equation.

Refraction resulting when a ray of radiant energy passes obliquely through the atmosphere. It may be called astronomical refraction if the ray enters the atmosphere from outer space, or terrestrial refraction if it emanates from a point on or near the surface of the earth.

The law that the rate of heat flow through a substance is proportional to the area normal to the direction of flow and to the negative of the rate of change of temperature with distance along the direction of flow. Also known as Fourier heat equation.

Atmospheric refraction of a ray of radiant energy passing through the atmosphere from outer space, as contrasted with TERRESTRIAL REFRACTION of a ray emanating from a point on or near the surface of the earth. See also REFRAC- TION.

The temperature of a blackbody that emits the same amount of heat radiation per unit area as a given object; measured by a total radiation pyrometer. Also known as brightness temperature.

For a fluid confined in a vessel, the rate of flow of heat out of the fluid, per unit area of vessel wall divided by the difference between the temperature in the interior of the fluid and the temperature at the surface of the wall. Also known as convection coefficient.

The ratio of the compressive or tensile force applied to a substance per unit surface area to the change in volume of the substance per unit volume. Also known as bulk modulus; compression modulus; hydrostatic modulus; modulus of compression; modulus of volume elasticity.