The sequence and length of light and dark periods and the color or colors by which a navigational light is identified.

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Works on the basis that atoms of metallic and other particular elements emit light at characteristic wavelengths when they are excited in a flame, arc, or spark. Excited light is directed through an entrance slit in the spectrometer. This light penetrates the slit, falls on a grate, and is dispersed and reflected. The spectrometer is calibrated by a series of standard samples containing known amounts of the elements of interest. By exciting these standard samples, an analytical curve can be established which gives the relationship between the light intensity and its concentration in the fluid.


An occulting light in which the occultations are combined in groups, each group including the same number of occultations, and in which the groups are repeated at regular intervals. The intervals of light separating the occultations within each group are of equal duration and this duration is clearly shorter than the duration of the interval of light between two successive groups.


A piece of ice smaller than a BERGY BIT or FLOEBERG, often transparent but appearing green or almost black in color. It extends less than 1 meter above the sea surface and its length is less than 20 feet (6 meters). A growler is large enough to be a hazard to shipping but small enough that it may escape visual or radar detection.


A light sounding lead (7 to 14 pounds), usually having a line of not more than 25 fathoms


A quick flashing light in which a specified group of flashes is regularly repeated


Measures the radiation absorbed by chemically unbound atoms by analyzing the transmitted energy relative to the incident energy at each frequency. The procedure consists of diluting the fluid sample with methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) and directly aspirating the solution. The actual process of atomization involves reducing the solution to a fine spray, dissolving it, and finally vaporizing it with a flame. The vaporization of the metal particles depends upon their time in the flame, the flame temperature, and the composition of the flame gas. The spectrum occurs because atoms in the vapor state can absorb radiation at certain well-defined characteristic wave lengths. The wave length bands absorbed are very narrow and differ for each element. In addition, the absorption of radiant energy by electronic transitions from ground to excited state is essentially and absolute measure of the number of atoms in the flame and is, therefore, the concentration of the element in a sample.


Related to the ability of a fluid to pass light.


A unit of wave length, equal in length to one ten billionth.

FTIR, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

A test where infrared light absorption is used for assessing levels of soot, sulfates, oxidation, nitro-oxidation, glycol, fuel, and water contaminants.


A flashing light in which the flashes are combined in groups, each group having the same number of flashes, and in which the groups are repeated at regular intervals. The eclipses separating the flashes within each group are of equal duration and this duration is clearly shorter than the duration of the eclipse between two successive groups.

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