# COCKED HAT

Error triangle formed by lines of position which do not cross at a common point

## Related Terms

### GYRO ERROR

The error in the reading of the gyrocompass, expressed in degrees east or west to indicate the direction in which the axis of the compass is offset from true north.

### HALVING

The process of adjusting magnetic compass correctors so as to remove half of the deviation on the opposite cardinal or adjacent intercardinal headings to those on which adjustment was originally made when all deviation was removed. This is done to equalize the error on opposite headings.

Radionavigation based on the measurement of the time differences in the reception of signals from several pairs of synchronized transmitters. For each pair of transmitters the isochrones are substantially hyperbolic. The combination of isochrones for two or more pairs of transmitters forms a hyperbolic lattice within which position can be determined according to the measured time differences

### HOUR-GLASS EFFECT

A radarscope phenomenon which appears as a constriction or expansion of the display near the center of the plan position indicator, which can be caused by a nonlinear time base or the sweep plot starting on the radar indicator at the same instant as the transmission of the pulse. The phenomenon is most apparent when in narrow rivers or close to shore.

### HYSTERESIS ERROR

That error in the reading of an instrument due to hysteresis

A dip needle with a sliding weight that can be moved along one of its arms to balance magnetic force, used to determine the correct position of a heeling magnet.

### INDEX CORRECTION

The correction due to index error

### HYPOTENUSE

The side of a plane right triangle opposite the right angle; the longest side of a plane right triangle

### MOTION

The act, process, or instance of change of position. Absolute motion is motion relative to a fixed point. Actual motion is motion of an object relative to the earth. Apparent or relative motion is change of position as observed from a reference point which may itself be in motion. Diurnal motion is the apparent daily motion of a celestial body. Direct motion is the apparent motion of a planet eastward among the stars; retrograde motion, the apparent motion westward among the stars. Motion of a celestial body through space is called space motion, which is composed of two components: proper motion, that component perpendicular to the line of sight; and radial motion, that component in the direction of the line of sight. Also called MOVEMENT, especially when used in connection with problems involving the motion of one vessel relative to another.

### EFFECTIVE RANGE

The range of values of the measured quantity for which any single measurement, obtained under specified conditions of use of a measuring instrument, should not be in error by more than a specified amount. NOTE: The effective range may be the whole or a specified part of the interval between the lower and upper range limits. Also known as measuring range, working range

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