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A ridge (a line or wall of ice forced up by pressure) in which the base has frozen together.

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  1. On the sea floor, a long, narrow elevation with steep sides. 2. A line or wall of broken ice forced up by pressure. The ridge may be fresh or weathered. 3. In meteorology, an elongated area of relatively high atmospheric pressure, almost always associated with and most clearly identified as an area of maximum anticyclonic curvature of wind flow. The opposite of a ridge is called TROUGH. Sometimes called WEDGE.


An exceptionally dense cloud of great vertical development, occurring either as an isolated cloud or one of a line or wall of clouds with separated upper portions. These clouds appear as mountains or huge towers, at least a part of the upper portions of which are usually smooth, fibrous, striated, and almost flattened. This part often spreads out in the form of an anvil or plume. Under the base of cumulonimbus, which often is very dark, there frequently exists virga, precipitation, and low, ragged clouds, either merged with it or not. Its precipitation is often heavy and always of a showery nature. The usual occurrence of lightning and thunder within or from this cloud leads to its being popularly called THUNDERCLOUD and THUNDERHEAD. The latter term usually refers to only the upper portion of the cloud.


(TE): This is obtained by adding to the draught moulded the distance between the moulded base line and a line touching the lowest point of the underside of the keel. This line is continued to the FP and AP, where it is used as the datum for the sets of draught marks.


Any apparatus designed for use in measuring with accuracy and precision the length of a base line in triangulation, or the length of a line in firstor second-order traverse.


(T): The draught measured to any water-line, either forward or aft, using the moulded base line as a datum.


A crack at the line of junction between an immovable icefoot or ice wall and fast ice the latter subject to rise and fall of the tide.


The amount by which the line of the outer bottom plating amidships rises above the base line, when continued to the moulded breadth lines at each side.


A system, in surveying, of quadrilaterals and triangles that include and are quite close to a base line in a triangulation system.


A trench which is below the foundation base line of a dam or other structure and is filled with an impervious material, such as clay or concrete, to form a watertight barrier.


  1. A solid having a plane base bounded by a closed curve and a surface formed by lines from every point on the circumference of the base to a common point or APEX. 2. A surface generated by a straight line of indefinite length, one point of which is fixed and another point of which follows a fixed curve. Also called a CONICAL SURFACE.

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