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The type of climate characteristic of the interior of a large land mass, the distinctive features of which are large annual and daily temperature range and dry air with few clouds, in contrast with MARINE CLIMATE.



Related Terms

CLIMATE

The prevalent or characteristic meteorological conditions of a place or region, in contrast with weather, the state of the atmosphere at any time. A marine climate is characteristic of coastal areas, islands, and the oceans, the distinctive features being small annual and daily temperature range and high relative humidity, in contrast with continental climate, which is characteristic of the interior of a large land mass, and the distinctive features of which are large annual and daily temperature range and dry air with few clouds.

MARINE CLIMATE

The type of climate characteristic of coastal areas, islands, and the oceans, the distinctive features of which are small annual and daily temperature range and high relative humidity in contrast with CONTINENTAL CLIMATE, which is characteristic of the interior of a large landmass, and the distinctive features of which are large annual and daily temperature range and dry air with few clouds.

DEMISTER

A series of ducts in automobiles arranged so that hot, dry air directed from the heat source is forced against the interior of the windscreen or windshield to prevent condensation.

DALR

Dry adiabatic lapse rate is approx. 9.8o C per kilometre being the temperature change of unsaturated air on rising or falling.

MONSOON

A name for seasonal winds first applied to the winds over the Arabian Sea, which blow for 6 months from the northeast (northeast monsoon) and for 6 months from the southwest (southwest mon- soon). The primary cause is the much greater annual variation of temperature over large land areas compared with the neighboring ocean surfaces, causing an excess of pressure over the continents in winter and a deficit in summer, but other factors such as the relief features of the land have a considerable effect. In India the term is popularly applied chiefly to the southwest monsoon and by extension, to the rain which it brings.

D.A.L.R.

Dry adiabatic lapse rate is approx. 9.8o C per kilometre being the temperature change of unsaturated air on rising or falling.

NORTHER

A northerly wind. In the southern United States, especially in Texas (Texas norther) in the Gulf of Mexico, in the Gulf of Panama away from the coast, and in central America (the norte), the norther is a strong cold wind from the northeast to northwest. It occurs between November and April, freshening during the afternoon and decreasing at night. It is a cold air outbreak associated with the southward movement of a cold anticyclone. It is usually preceded by a warm and cloudy or rainy spell with southerly winds. The norther comes as a rushing blast and brings a sudden drop of temperature of as much as 25°F in 1 hour or 50°F in 3 hours in winter. The California norther is a strong, very dry, dusty, northerly wind which blows in late spring, summer and early fall in the valley of California or on the west coast when pressure is high over the mountains to the north. It lasts from 1 to 4 days. The dryness is due to adiabatic warming during descent. In summer it is very hot. The Portuguese norther is the beginning of the trade wind west of Portugal. The term is used for a strong north wind on the coast of Chile which blows occasionally in summer. In southeast Australia, a hot dry wind from the desert is called a norther.

DUST DEVIL

A well-developed dust whirl, a small but vigorous whirlwind, usually of short duration, rendered visible by dust, sand, and debris picked up from the ground. Diameters of dust devils range from about 10 feet to greater than 100 feet; their average height is about 600 feet, but a few have been observed as high as several thousand feet. They have been observed to rotate anticyclonically as well as cyclonically. Dust devils are best developed on a hot, calm after- noon with clear skies, in a dry region when intense surface heating causes a very steep lapse rate of temperature in the lower few hundred feet of the atmosphere.

TROPICAL CONTINENTAL AIR

Air of an air mass originating over a land area in low latitudes, such as the Sahara desert. Tropical continental air is characterized by high surface temperature and low specific humidity.

LOW-TEMPERATURE SEPARATION

Liquid condensate recovery from wet gases at temperatures of 20 to 20 F ( 6.7 to 28.9 C), the temperature range at which the gas-oil separator operates.

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