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# CONVERSION

 Determination of the rhumb line direction of one point from another when the initial great circle direction is known, or vice versa. The difference between the two directions is the conversion angle, and is used in great circle sailing.

## Related Terms

### CONVERSION ANGLE

The angle between the rhumb line and the great circle between two points. Also called ARC TO CHORD CORREC- TION.

### TRACK CHART

A chart showing recommended, required, or established tracks, and usually indicating turning points, courses, and distances. A distinction is sometimes made between a TRACK CHART and a ROUTE CHART, the latter generally showing less specific information, and sometimes only the area for some distance each side of the great circle or rhumb line connecting two terminals.

### RHUMB-LINE COURSE

The direction of the rhumb line from the point of departure to the destination, expressed as the angular distance from a reference direction, usually north. Also called MERCATOR COURSE.

### RHUMB BEARING

The direction of a rhumb line through two terrestrial points, expressed angular distance from a reference direction. It is usually measured from 000° at the reference direction clockwise through 360°. Also called MERCATOR BEARING.

### SAILING

A method of solving the various problems involving course, distance, difference of latitude, difference of longitude, and departure. The various methods are collectively spoken of as the sailings. Plane sailing considers the earth as a plane. Traverse sailing applies the principles of plane sailing to determine the equivalent course and distance made good by a craft following a track consisting of a series of rhumb lines. Any of the sailings which considers the spherical or spheroidal shape of the earth is called spherical sailing. Middlelatitude sailing is a method of converting departure into difference of longitude, or vice versa, by assuming that such a course is steered at the middle or mean latitude; if the course is 090° or 270° true, it is called parallel sailing. Mercator sailing applies when the various elements are considered in their relation on a Mercator chart. Meridian sailing is used when the course is 000° or 180° true. Rhumb-line sailing is used when a rhumb line is involved; great- circle sailing when a great circle track is involved. Composite sailing is a modification of great circle sailing used when it is desired to limit the highest latitude. The expression current sailing is occasionally used to refer to the process of allowing for current in determining the predicted course made good, or of determining the effect of a current on the direction of motion of a vessel.

### GREAT CIRCLE BEARING

The initial direction of a great circle through two terrestrial points, expressed as angula

### DEFLECTION OF THE VERTICAL

The angular difference at any place, between the direction of a plumb line (the vertical) and the perpendicular to the reference ellipsoid. This difference seldom exceeds 30'. Often expressed in two components, meridian and prime vertical. Also called STATION ERROR.

### FICTITIOUS RHUMB LINE

A line making the same oblique angle with all fictitious meridians. It may be called transverse, oblique, or grid rhumb line depending upon the type of fictitious meridian. The expression OBLIQUE RHUMB LINE applies also to any rhumb line, real or fictitious, which makes an oblique angle with its meridians; as distinguished from parallels and meridians real or fictitious, which may be consider special cases of the rhumb line. Also called FICTITIOUS RHUMB, FICTITIOUS LOXODROME, FICTI- TIOUS LOXODROMIC CURVE.

### ANOMALY

1. Departure from the strict characteristics of the type, pattern, scheme, etc. 2. An angle used in the mathematical description of the orbit of one body about another. It is the angle between the radius vector of the body and the line of apsides and is measured from pericenter in the direction of motion. When the radius vector is from the center of the primary to the orbiting body, the angle is called true anomaly. When the radius vector is from the center of the primary to a fictitious body moving with a uniform angular velocity in such a way that its period is equal to that of the actual body, the angle is called mean anomaly. When the radius vector is from the center of the elliptical orbit to the point of intersection of the circle defined by the semimajor axis with the line perpendicular to the semimajor axis and passing through the orbiting body, the angle is called eccentric anomaly or eccentric angle. 3. Departure of the local mean value of a meteorological element from the mean value for the latitude.

### GREAT CIRCLE CHART

A chart on which a great circle appears as a straight line or approximately so, particularly a chart on the gnomonic map projection.

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