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An acceleration of a body in motion in a relative (moving) coordinate system. The total acceleration of the body, as measured in an inertial coordinate system, may be expressed as the sum of the acceleration within the relative system, the acceleration of the relative system itself, and the Corioli

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  1. A correction applied to an assumed position, celestial line of position, celestial fix, or to a computed or observed altitude to allow for Coriolis acceleration. 2. In inertial navigation equipment, an acceleration correction which must be applied to measurements of acceleration with respect to a coordinate system in translation to compensate for the effect of any angular motion of the coordinate system with respect to inertial space.


A reference frame which moves with the velocity of the center of mass, so that the center of mass is at rest in this system, and the total momentum of the system is zero. Also known as center of momentum coordinate system.


That error introduced in a gyro-compass by the tilting of the gimbal mounting system of the compass due to horizontal acceleration caused by motion of the vessel, such as rolling.


A force introduced in a relative coordinate system in order that Newton's laws be satisfied in the system; examples are the Coriolis force and the centrifugal force incorporated in gravity.


The portion of the total energy of a system that is available for conversion to useful work; in particular, the quantity of work that can be performed by a fluid relative to a reference condition, usually the surrounding ambient condition.


One of a set of magnitudes defining a point in space. If the point is known to be on a given line, only one coordinate is needed; if on a surface, two are required; if in space, three. Cartesian coordinates define a point relative to two intersecting lines, called AXES. If the axes are perpendicular, the coordinates are rectangular; if not perpendicular, they are oblique coordinates. A three- dimensional system of Cartesian coordinates is called space coordinates. Polar coordinates define a point by its distance and direction from a fixed point called the POLE. Direction is given as the angle between a reference radius vector and a radius vector to the point. If three dimensions are involved, two angles are used to locate the radius vector. Space-polar coordinates define a point on the surface of a sphere by (1) its distance from a fixed point at the center, called the POLE (2) the COLATITUDE or angle between the POLAR AXIS (a reference line through the pole) and the RADIUS VECTOR (a straight line connecting the pole and the point)- and (3) the LONGITUDE or angle between a reference plane through the polar axis and a plane through the radius vector and the polar axis. Spherical coordinates define a point on a sphere or spheroid by its angular distances from a primary great circle and from a reference secondary great circle. Geographical or terrestrial coordinates define a point on the surface of the earth. Celestial coordinates define a point on the celestial sphere. The horizon, celestial equator and the ecliptic systems of celestial coordinates are based on the celestial horizon, celestial equator, and the ecliptic, respectively, as the primary great circle.


  1. The ratio of the magnitude of the primary feedback signal in a feedback control system to the magnitude of the actuating signal. 2. Total usable power gain of a carrier terminal or two-wire repeater; maximum usable gain is determined by, and may not exceed, the losses in the closed path.


  1. The method of applying a signal to an electronic circuit or device. 2. The process of introducing electrons or holes into a semiconductor so that their total number exceeds the number present at thermal equilibrium. 3. The introduction of fuel, fuel and air, fuel and oxidizer, water, or other substance into an engine induction system or combustion chamber.


The system of mechanics based upon Newton's laws of motion in which mass and energy are considered as separate, conservative, mechanical properties, in contrast to their treatment in relativistic mechanics.


Any substance interposed between two surfaces in relative motion for the purpose of reducing the friction and/or the wear between them.

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