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# CROSS BEARINGS

 Two or more bearings used as intersecting lines of position for fixing the position of a craft

## Related Terms

### VECTOR DIAGRAM

A diagram of more than one vector drawn to the same scale and reference direction and in correct position relative to each other. A vector diagram composed of vectors representing the actual courses and speeds of two craft and the relative motion vector of either one in relation to the other may be called a SPEED TRIANGLE.

### POSITION

A point defined by stated or implied coordinates, particularly one on the surface of the earth. A fix is a relatively accurate position determined without reference to any former position. A running fix is a position determined by crossing lines of position obtained at different times and advanced or retired to a common time. An estimated position is determined from incomplete data or data of questionable accuracy. A dead reckoning position is determined by advancing a previous position for courses and distances. A most probable position is a position judged to be most accurate when an element of doubt exists as to the true position. It may be a fix, running fix, estimated position, or dead reckoning position depend- ing upon the information upon which it is based. An assumed position is a point at which a craft is assumed to be located. A geographical position is that point on the earth at which a given celestial body is in the zenith at a specified time, or any position defined by means of its geographical coordinates. A geodetic position is a point on the earth the coordinates of which have been determined by triangulation from an accurately known initial station, or one defined in terms of geodetic latitude and longitude. An astronomical position is a point on the earth whose coordinates have been determined as a result of observation of celestial bodies, or one defined in terms of astronomical latitude and longitude. A maritime position is the location of a seaport or other point along a coast. A relative position is one defined with reference to another position, either fixed or moving.

### PSEUDO-INDEPENDENT SURVEILLANCE

Position determination that relies on craft or vehicle cooperation but is not subject to craft or vehicle navigational errors (e.g., secondary radar).

### INDEPENDENT SURVEILLANCE

Position determination by means requiring no cooperation from the craft or vehicle.

### CUT IN

To observe and plot lines of position locating an object or craft, particularly by bearings

### POINT OF ARRIVAL

The position at which a craft is assumed to have reached or will reach after following specified courses for specified distance from a point of departure.

### ANGLE OF CUT

The smaller angular difference of two bearings or lines of position

A radar transmitter whose emissions enable a ship to deter- mine its direction and frequently position relative to the transmitter using the ship’s radar equipment. There are two general types of radar beacons: one type, the RACON, must be triggered by the ship’s radar emissions; the other type, the RAMARK transmits continuously and provides bearings only.

### RELATIVE PLOT

A plot of the successive positions of a craft relative to a reference point, which is usually in motion. A line connecting successive relative positions of a maneuvering ship relative to a reference ship is called a RELATIVE MOVEMENT LINE. A relative plot includes relative movement lines and the position of the reference ship.

### SURVEILLANCE

The observation of an area or space for the purpose of determining the position and movements of craft or vehicles in that area or space. Surveillance can be either dependent, independent, or pseudoindependent.

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