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An exceptionally dense cloud of great vertical development, occurring either as an isolated cloud or one of a line or wall of clouds with separated upper portions. These clouds appear as mountains or huge towers, at least a part of the upper portions of which are usually smooth, fibrous, striated, and almost flattened. This part often spreads out in the form of an anvil or plume. Under the base of cumulonimbus, which often is very dark, there frequently exists virga, precipitation, and low, ragged clouds, either merged with it or not. Its precipitation is often heavy and always of a showery nature. The usual occurrence of lightning and thunder within or from this cloud leads to its being popularly called THUNDERCLOUD and THUNDERHEAD. The latter term usually refers to only the upper portion of the cloud.

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Wisps or streaks of water or ice particles falling out of a cloud but evaporating before reaching the earth’s surface as precipitation. Virga is frequently seen trailing from altocumulus and altostratus clouds, but also is discernible below the bases of high-level cumuliform clouds from which precipitation is falling into a dry subcloud layer. It typically exhibits a hooked form in which the streaks descend nearly vertically just under the precipitation source but appear to be almost horizontal at their lower extremities. Such curvature of virga can be produced simply by effects of strong vertical windshear, but ordinarily it results from the fact that droplet or crystal evaporation decreases the particle terminal fall velocity near the ends of the streaks. Also called FALL STREAKS, PRECIPITATION TRAILS.


A ridge (a line or wall of ice forced up by pressure) in which the base has frozen together.


(D): The vertical distance between the moulded base line and the top of the beams of the uppermost continuous deck measured at the side amidships.


A cloud type in the form of individual, detached elements which are generally dense and possess sharp non-fibrous outlines. These elements develop vertically, appearing as rising mounds, domes, or towers, the upper parts of which often resemble a cauliflower. The sunlit parts of these clouds are mostly brilliant white; their bases are relatively dark and nearly horizontal. Near the horizon the vertical development of cumulus often causes the individual clouds to appear merged. If precipitation occurs, it is usually of a showery nature. Various effects of wind, illumination, etc. may modify many of the above characteristics. Strong winds may shred the clouds, often tearing away the cumulus tops to form the species fractus.


The vertical angle at the level point, between the line of fall and the base of the trajectory.


A trench which is below the foundation base line of a dam or other structure and is filled with an impervious material, such as clay or concrete, to form a watertight barrier.


Magnitudes defining a point relative to two perpendicular lines, called AXES. The magnitudes indicate the perpendicular distance from each axis. The vertical distance is called the ordinate and the horizontal distance the abscissa. This is a form of CARTESIAN COORDINATES.


A hollow, cylindrical insert placed in a form for a concrete wall at the position where a pipe is to penetrate in order to prevent flow of concrete into the opening.


A local storm invariably produced by a cumulonimbus cloud and always accompanied by lightning and thunder, usually with strong gusts of wind, heavy rain, and sometimes with hail. It is usually of short duration.


A line connecting points having the same astronomical longitude. Because the deflection of the vertical (station error) varies from point to point, the astronomical meridian is not a plane curve. When the astronomical meridian is corrected for station error, it becomes the GEODETIC MERIDIAN. Also called TERRESTRIAL MERIDIAN and sometimes called GEOGRAPHIC MERIDIAN.

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